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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Resistance ; Transformation ; Golgi complex ; Cytoskeleton
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A series of cell lines with different levels of resistance to continuous cadmium exposure has been developed from an immortal but non-transformed muntjac fibroblast cell line. Concentrations accepted in their culture medium range from 0.1 μM for the cadmium sensitive parent line to 5 μM for the intermediate “cadmium-tolerant” line, to 5, 10, 20 and 50 μM for the four “cadmium-resistant” lines. The present paper follows the morphological changes which accompanied the development of resistance through a 20-month pre-resistance period, a relatively abrupt 6-week transitional period and a 3-year post-resistance period, during which time levels of cadmium resistance were increased. Initial changes which led to the cadmium-tolerant CR5 cell line included (i) increased efficiency in autophagocytosing damaged cell components and in ridding the cell of residual waste materials, (ii) a reduction in fluid filled vacuoles and (iii) improved recycling and/or replacement of cadmium-damaged cell membrane. With the advent of cadmium resistance the intracellular damage necessitating these activities disappeared, yet the series of changes which occurred included a massive build-up of Golgi and the appearance of a trans-Golgi tubular network in addition to cytoskeletal and membrane changes. Though metallothionein levels are greater in the cadmium-resistant variants, their increase appears inadequate on their own to account for the high levels of resistance. The post-resistance changes which accompanied each step-up in cadmium resistance included further membrane and glycocalyx changes, in addition to continued increases in Golgi bodies and tubular network. This paper details the morphological changes which occurred throughout the 5-year period, tests the direct dependence of each on the presence of cadmium and examines their possible contribution to a cadmium protective mechanism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Ultrastructure ; In vitro ; Nucleus ; Cytoplasm ; Muntjac
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A detailed electron microscopy study of cadmium sensitive and resistant muntjac fibroblast cell lines has identified a wide range of intracellular damage following exposure to cadmium. Damaged organelles included cell membrane, mitochondria, Golgi cisternae and tubular network, chromatin, nucleoli, microfilaments and ribosomes. Although cell membrane damage was generally the earliest indication of adverse cadmium action, particularly with continuous cadmium exposures, cells could tolerate extensive membrane loss. Mitochondrial distortion and some damage to Golgi was also tolerated. The turning point at which cadmium became lethal was generally marked by a cascade of events which included damage to both nuclear and cytoplasmic components. These results for fibroblasts are discussed and compared with damage reported in other types of cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Amoeba proteus ; Anaerobiosis ; Metabolic inhibitors ; Mitochondria ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Anaerobiosis or exposure to the metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and Antimycin A produced changes in the form of living amoebae. These were accompanied by mitochondrial changes in fixed cells. Increasing the anaerobic period increased the percentage of mitochondria affected and resulted in a gradual reduction and eventual loss of the condensed Type I mitochondria ofAmoeba proteus. The rounder Type II mitochondria were not lost but underwent varying degrees of disruption, vesiculation of the cristae being evident after 5 hours exposures and matrical inclusions after 18 hours exposures. Similar cristal vesiculation was seen after 30 minutes treatments with potassium cyanide. Providing treatments were terminated before cell viability was lost, all mitochondrial abnormalities were reversible on return to normal culturing conditions. The longer the period of anaerobiosis the longer was the recovery time required for the return of normal mitochondrial structure and the re-equilibration of control Type I to Type II mitochondrial frequencies. The relationship between mitochondrial conformation and functional integrity is discussed in the light of these findings.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Mitochondria ; Ultrastructure ; Microinjection ; ATP ; ADP ; Amoeba proteus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Microinjection of adenine nucleotides and substrates into the cytoplasm of Amoeba proteus followed by EM examination has been used in an attempt to relate alterations in mitochondrial morphology with functional changes. Contracted mitochondria with dark matrix and wide cristae (Type I), and expanded mitochondria with light matrix and narrower cristae (Type II) coexist in normal active amoebae, but their numbers can be varied according to different cell activity states. Following injection of ATP, the mitochondria of the amoebae showed a time-dependent movement towards a predominately Type II form, whilst injections of ADP produced predominately the Type I form. Injection of succinate or deionised water, even in large amounts, had little effect on the numbers of Type I or Type II forms. The change induced by ATP was of long duration; that induced by ADP was influenced by both concentration injected and the cell's substrate levels. With 3 mM solutions of ADP the mitochondrial population was primarily of Type I organelles; higher ADP concentrations or the simultaneous injection of succinate, however, resulted in a switch with time to increased proportions of Type II mitochondria. The results extend the findings of previous in vivo and in vitro mitochondrial studies and are discussed in the light of these.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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