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  • 1
    ISSN: 0167-4889
    Keywords: 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-7 ; 24-epi-1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-2 ; Calcium metabolism ; Leukemia differentiation ; Vitamin D
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0531-5565
    Keywords: aging ; glutathione (GSH) ; oxidant-antioxidant balance ; oxygen radical ; senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) ; tobacco smoke
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are common human conditions considered to result from the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Twin and family studies have yielded strong correlations between levels of bone mass and a number of genetic factors. The genes involved could regulate metabolism, formation and resorption of bone, all processes that determine bone mass. We tested 192 sibling pairs of adult Japanese women from 136 families for genetic linkage between osteopenia and allelic variants of four candidate genes (interleukin-6, interleukin-6 receptor, calcium-sensing receptor, and matrix gla protein) using qualitative and quantitative methods, and using as genetic markers dinucleotide-repeat polymorphisms present in or near each of those loci. The interleukin-6 locus showed evidence of linkage to osteopenia analyzed as a qualitative trait, with mean allele sharing of 0.40 (P=0.0001) in discordant pairs and 0.55 (P=0.04) in concordant affected pairs. Variation at this locus was also linked to decreased bone mineral density measured as a quantitative trait (P=0.02). Analyses limited only to the post-menopausal women showed similar or even stronger results. No other locus among those tested showed any evidence of linkage by either method. The results provided strong evidence that genetic variation at the interleukin-6 locus affects regulation of bone mineral metabolism and confers risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis in adult women.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Ofloxacin ; sucralfate ; food ; drug interaction ; absorption ; healthy volunteers ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have studied the effect of food on the interaction of ofloxacin with sucralfate. Six healthy men took a single oral dose of ofloxacin (200 mg) on 4 occasions: alone after overnight fasting or after breakfast (non-fasting), and with sucralfate fasting or non-fasting. There were no significant differences in the plasma concentration-time profiles of ofloxacin after ofloxacin alone between fasting and non-fasting conditions. On the other hand, the peak plasma concentration and AUC of ofloxacin after co-administration with sucralfate while fasting fell by 70 and 61 % compared with ofloxacin alone; the changes non-fasting were 39 and 31 % respectively. The interaction of ofloxacin with sucralfate was markedly reduced by food, but still could not be disregarded.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: carvedilol ; common carotid arterial flow ; peripheral hemodynamics ; erythrocyte deformability ; erythrocyte aggregation ; plasma viscosity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of a beta-blocker, carvedilol, on peripheral hemodynamics and hemorheologic parameters were evaluated in 11 geriatric patients with essential hypertension [3 men and 8 women aged 62–79 years (mean, 68.6 years)]. Carvedilol was given orally after breakfast at a dose of 10 or 20 mg daily for 8 weeks. Peripheral hemodynamics, the common carotid arterial flow, and hemorheologic parameters were determined twice prior to administration and after 4 and 8 weeks of carvedilol treatment. The common carotid arterial flow was determined using the pulsed Doppler method. Peripheral hemodynamics were assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography. The hemorheologic parameters assessed include erythrocyte aggregation, erythrocyte deformability, plasma viscosity, whole-blood hematocrit, and platelet function tests. Erythrocyte aggregation was measured using an Erythrocyte Aggregometer MA-1 (Myrenne, USA), taking a high shear rate of 600 s\t-1 and a low shear rate of 3 s\t-1 as the indices. Statistical comparisons of values before and after carvedilol administration were made using the paired Student'st-test. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were decreased by carvedilol. The common carotid arterial flow was increased, and peripheral hemodynamics were improved by carvedilol. Erythrocyte aggregation (measured at both a high and a low shear rate) and plasma viscosity were decreased, erythrocyte deformability was increased, and levels of circulating platelet aggregates were also improved by carvedilol. This improvement of hemorheologic variables may contribute to prevention of the initiation and progression of thrombosis and atherosclerosis in geriatric patients with essential hypertension.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words: Bone resorption – Deoxypyridinoline – Lumbar spine bone mineral density – Postmenopausal Japanese women – Soy protein –Z-score for L2–4 BMD
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the effects of soybean protein intake on bone mineral density and biochemical markers in 85 postmenopausal Japanese women. Nutrients in the diet of postmenopausal Japanese women visiting the osteoporosis unit, including subjects with normal lumbar spine bone mineral density (L2–4 BMD), were investigated by questionnaire, and the calculated daily energy, protein, soy protein and calcium intake were obtained. L2–4 BMD was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and assays done of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum intact osteocalcin (IOC) as bone formation markers and urinary pyridinoline (UPYR) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (UDPYR) as bone resorption markers. Soy protein intake was significantly associated with the Z-score for L2–4 BMD (r= 0.23, p = 0.038) and UDPYR (r =−0.23, p = 0.034). Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that soy protein intake is significantly associated with the Z-score for L2–4 BMD (β= 0.225, p = 0.04) and UDPYR (β=−0.08, p = 0.03) among four nutritional factors. These results suggest that high soy protein intake is associated with a higher bone mineral density and a lower level of bone resorption, but further studies are needed to confirm the causal dynamic mechanisms.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Alendronate – Alfacalcidol – Bone mineral density – Double-masked comparative study – Osteoporosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alendronate, a double-masked, active (alfacalcidol) controlled comparative study for 48 weeks was carried out in a total of 210 Japanese patients with osteoporosis. The doses of alendronate and alfacalcidol were 5 mg/day and 1 μg/day, respectively. The lumbar bone mineral density (LBMD) values observed at 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks after the initiation of alendronate treatment were 3.53 ± 0.53%, 5.37 ± 0.62%, 5.87 ± 0.74% and 6.21 ± 0.59% (mean ± SE), respectively, higher than the baseline value. Corresponding values in the alfacalcidol group were 1.50 ± 0.43%, 0.69 ± 0.63%, 1.12 ± 0.60% and 1.36 ± 0.63%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups at each time point (p〈0.05 or p〈0.001). The bone turnover markers were depressed during treatment in the alendronate group: −32.2% for alkaline phosphatase, −53.7% for N-terminal osteocalcin and −45.0% for urinary deoxypyridinoline compared with the corresponding baseline values. On the contrary, no notable changes in these parameters were observed in the alfacalcidol group. Treatment with alendronate caused a transient decrease in serum calcium concentrations associated with an increase in the serum level of intact parathyroid hormone. In contrast, treatment with alfacalcidol resulted in a tendency of these parameters to change in the opposite direction. No difference in fracture incidence between the two groups was observed. The overall safety of alendronate was comparable to that of alfacalcidol. In conclusion, although it was a relatively short-term study of 48 weeks, the results of the present study indicate that alendronate at the daily dose of 5 mg was effective in increasing LBMD and that no serious drug-related adverse events were observed in the alendronate-treated patients. Alendronate is more efficacious than alfacalcidol in increasing bone mineral density, although the mechanisms of the actions of the two drugs are apparently different.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Osteoporosis international 3 (1993), S. 153-156 
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusions The recent developments in both instrumentation and software have led to the widespread use of DXA in osteoporosis. Although DXA has advantages over other techniques, it is important to give the pitfalls and limitations of DXA careful consideration to ensure its effective clinical application.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Bone markers – Human parathyroid hormone (1–34) – Lumbar bone mineral density – Osteoporosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: To test the effect of amino-terminal peptide 1–34 of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH (1–34)) as a possible bone anabolic agent in the treatment of osteoporosis, weekly subcutaneous injection of 50 units (L group), 100 units (M group) or 200 units (H group) of hPTH (1–34) was started in 220 patients with osteoporosis at 71 institutions randomly divided into three groups in a double-masked system. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) increased by 0.6%, 3.6% and 8.1% after 48 weeks in groups L, M and H respectively, responses in groups M and H being significantly higher than in L (p〈0.05, Mann–Whitney U-test). Since the coefficient of variation for lumbar spine measurement stayed at 1–2.5%, increases of 3.6% and 8.1% appeared significant. Metacarpal BMD and cortical thickness measured by radiogrammetry did not change significantly. Serum calcium decreased in each group and serum phosphorus decreased in groups M and H. Urinary calcium/creatinine decreased at the 12th week in group H and at the 24th and 48th weeks in groups M and L. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D decreased in each group at the 48th week (p〈0.05). Serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase was increased at the fourth week in groups H and M and decreased at the 48th week in group H. Urinary hydroxyproline, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline declined significantly in each group. Backache improved in 30–40% of each group. No serious adverse effects were found during the test period. Intermittent weekly injection of hPTH (1–34) increased lumbar BMD in osteoporosis, suggesting usefulness in the treatment of osteoporosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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