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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; human ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; MODELS ; VIVO ; CLASSIFICATION ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; transcription ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; T cell ; T-CELL ; BIOLOGY ; SEQUENCE ; SEQUENCES ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST-CANCER ; culture ; MOUSE ; STAGE ; PROGRESSION ; LYMPHOMA ; PATTERNS ; PROMOTER ; TUMOR PROGRESSION ; genetics ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; DNA methylation ; inactivation ; p53 ; EVOLUTION ; PHENOTYPE ; MOUSE MODEL ; SELECTION ; specificity ; OVEREXPRESSION ; METHYLATION ; TUMOR CELLS ; heredity ; CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC-LEUKEMIA ; HYPERMETHYLATION ; HETEROGENEITY ; EPIGENETIC INACTIVATION ; targeting ; PROGRAM ; PATTERN ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; HUMAN CANCER ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; LIBRARIES ; CELL LYMPHOMA ; CPG ISLANDS ; GENE-TRANSCRIPTION ; development ; TUMOR-CELL ; SUPPRESSOR ; PROFILES ; EVENTS ; SIGNATURE ; DISEASE PROGRESSION ; USA ; CPG ISLAND HYPERMETHYLATION ; HUMAN CANCERS ; PROMOTER METHYLATION ; CANCERS ; in vivo ; genomic ; GENETIC ALTERATION ; RARE ; PREDICT ; CpG island ; MYC ; TUMOR-DEVELOPMENT ; DNA-METHYLATION ; scanning ; CELL LYMPHOMAS ; evidence ; TUMOR SUPPRESSORS ; CAUSAL ROLE ; DNA HYPOMETHYLATION
    Abstract: Hypermethylation of CpG islands is a common epigenetic alteration associated with cancer. Global patterns of hypermethylation are tumor-type specific and nonrandom. The biological significance and the underlying mechanisms of tumor-specific aberrant promoter methylation remain unclear, but some evidence suggests that this specificity involves differential sequence susceptibilities, the targeting of DNA methylation activity to specific promoter sequences, or the selection of rare DNA methylation events during disease progression. Using restriction landmark genomic scanning on samples derived from tissue culture and in vivo models of T cell lymphomas, we found that MYC overexpression gave rise to a specific signature of CpG island hypermethylation. This signature reflected gene transcription profiles and was detected only in advanced stages of disease. The further inactivation of the Pten, p53, and E2f2 tumor suppressors in MYC-induced lymphomas resulted in distinct and diagnostic CpG island methylation signatures. Our data suggest that tumor-specific DNA methylation in lymphomas arises as a result of the selection of rare DNA methylation events during the course of tumor development. This selection appears to be driven by the genetic configuration of tumor cells, providing experimental evidence for a causal role of DNA hypermethylation in tumor progression and an explanation for the tremendous epigenetic heterogeneity observed in the evolution of human cancers. The ability to predict genome-wide epigenetic silencing based on relatively few genetic alterations will allow for a more complete classification of tumors and understanding of tumor cell biology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17907813
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Application of ACh on the isolated perfused retina of the frog elicited spikes of the optic nerve. The extent of this spike activity depended on the amount of ACh applied. The retinal response to ACh was varied by prostigmine and atropine as expected by their pharmacological properties. From these experiments it cannot be concluded that ACh is acting on the synapses of the firing ganglion cells directly.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-1891
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A theorem due toLaguerre gives a particularly simple and generally very precise upper limit for the number of roots 〉 α, α〉0, of an algebraic equation. A new proof of this theorem is given which shows thatLaguerre’s bound is never less than that obtained fromBudan-Fourier theorem.
    Notes: Sunto Un teorema dovuto aLaguerre dà un limite superiore per il numero delle radici 〉 α, α〉0, di un’equazione algebrica. In questa nota il teorema diLaguerre è provato con un ragionamento che mostra che il limite diLaguerre non è mai inferiore a quello ottenuto col teorema diBudan-Fourier.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic and fatal enteritis in ruminants. In the last stage of the disease, antibody titres rise and levels of interferon-γ decrease, suggesting that the host–immune response is switching from a T helper 1 (Th1) to a Th2 profile. In infected cattle, the membrane protein p34 elicits the predominant humoral response against M. paratuberculosis. To map the B-cell epitopes of this antigen, affinity-purified bovine antibodies against the carboxy-terminal region of p34 were used to screen a 12-mer phage display library. Several phage clones carrying peptides resembling fragments of p34 were affinity selected. Based on the predicted amino acid sequence, peptides were chemically synthesized, which demonstrated reactivity with serum from naturally infected and p34-vaccinated cattle. Immunization of mice with these peptides elicited an anti-p34 antibody response. Two B-cell epitopes were identified and characterized. Based on the reactivity and the type of immune response elicited, epitope A was determined to be conformational, whereas epitope B was demonstrated to be sequential. Both epitopes were shown to be present in p34 proteins from M. avium ssp. avium or M. paratuberculosis but absent from M. intracellulare, the other member of the M. avium complex. Furthermore, both epitopes were mapped to regions of p34 that display high variability when compared to homologous proteins from other mycobacterial species of public and animal health importance. We hypothesize that these variable regions of p34 may play a role in the immunobiology of M. paratuberculosis infections.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Energetic particle transport in a finite amplitude magnetosonic and Alfvénic turbulence is considered using the Monte Carlo particle simulations, which involve integration of particle equations of motion. We show that in the low-β plasma the cosmic-ray acceleration can be the most important damping process for magnetosonic waves. Assuming such conditions we derive the momentum diffusion coefficient Dp, for relativistic particles in the presence of anisotropic finite-amplitude turbulent wave fields, for flat and Kolmogorov-type turbulence spectra, respectively. We confirm the possibility of larger values of Dp occurring due to transit-time damping resonance interaction in the presence of isotropic fast-mode waves in comparison to the Alfvén waves of the same amplitude (cf. Schlickeiser and Miller, 1997). The importance of quasi-perpendicular fast-mode waves is stressed for the acceleration of high velocity particles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Biological film ; leaching pattern ; Thiobacillus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Thin polished sections of copper sulphide ore were placed as an energy source in stationary cultures of wild strains and Thiobacillus neapolitanus at pH 7.5. Scanning electron microscopy revealed characteristic leaching patterns that depended on the type of leaching process and time of bioleaching. In some cases, a biological film on the ore surface was observed. Close contact between bacterial cells and ore seems necessary for leaching in some cases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the present paper we discuss the modifications introduced into the first-order Fermi shock acceleration process due to a finite extent of diffusive regions near the shock or due to boundary conditions leading to an increased particle escape upstream and/or downstream of the shock. In the simple example of the planar shock wave considered we idealize the escape phenomenon by imposing a particle escape boundary at some distance from the shock. The presence of such a boundary (or boundaries) leads to coupled steepening of the accelerated particle spectrum and decreasing of the acceleration time scale. It allows for a semi-quantitative evaluation and, in some specific cases, also for modelling of the observed steep particle spectra as a result of the first-order Fermi shock acceleration. We also note that the particles close to the upper energy cut-off are younger than the estimate based on the respective acceleration time scale. In Appendix A we present a new time-dependent solution for infinite diffusive regions near the shock allowing for different constant diffusion coefficients upstream and downstream of the shock.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: cisplatin ; dose dense ; germ-cell tumour ; salvage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: In germ-cell tumours (GCT), there is continuing controversy over the relative merits of dose dense therapy (increased frequency over a given time) versus vertical intensification (increased dose per fraction). The value of using a cisplatin-based dose dense approach in the salvage setting has not been documented and in addition the role of methotrexate remains uncertain. This paper reviews results from our investigations of these issues. Patients and methods: Between 1987 and 1996, 65 patients with relapsing or refractory germ-cell tumour received weekly m-BOP (methotrexate, bleomycin, vincristine and cisplatin) as salvage therapy. Residual masses were excised if possible and patients progressing after this received cisplatin and ifosfamide based chemotherapy with or without high dose chemotherapy (HDCT) consolidation. Results: With a median follow-up of 33 months, 34% are progression free following m-BOP, 11% who had surgery for residual masses which showed viable cancers are progression free. A further 15% who progressed following m-BOP with or without surgery were rendered progression free by third-line therapy. Conclusions: The use of m-BOP as second line therapy with deferment of cisplatin and ifosfamide based treatment to third line therapy with consolidation of third line responses with HDCT, leads to an overall progression-free survival of 60%. It does not appear that M-BOP prejudiced the response to third line therapy suggesting a lack of cross resistance. The potentially lower risk of leukaemia and infertility from m-BOP requires further evaluation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: marine; Sphingomonas; phylogeny; oligotroph
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Sphingomonas species play an important role in the ecology of a range of marine habitats. Isolates and 16S-rRNA clones have been obtained from corals, natural and artificial sources of marine hydrocarbons and eutrophic and oligotrophic waters, and have been isolated as hosts for marine phages. In addition they are found in oceans spanning temperature ranges from polar to temperate waters. While less is known about marine sphingomonads in comparison to their terrestrial counterparts, their importance in microbial ecology is evident. This is illustrated by, for example, the numerical dominance of strain RB2256 in oligotrophic waters. Furthermore, the known marine sphingomonads represent a phylogenetic cross-section of the Sphingomonas genus. This review focuses on our present knowledge of cultured isolates and 16S-rDNA clones from marine environments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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