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  • 1
    Keywords: Denver (Colo.), History, 20th century. ; Middlebury (Vt. : Town), History, 20th century. ; Smyrna (Rutherford County, Tenn.), History, 20th century. ; Cities and towns, United States, Growth, History, 20th century, Case studies. ; Interstate Highway System, History, 20th century. ; Roads, Government policy, United States, History, 20th century. ; Transportation, Automotive, United States, History, 20th century.
    Notes: Highway federalism -- Denver meets the automobile -- The decentralization of post-World War II Denver -- Automobiles and a small town -- Bridges, bypasses, and boulevards -- AutoCity : Smyrna, Tennessee
    Pages: xiv, 297 p.
    ISBN: 0-19-530264-8
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  Qualität der "Neuen" Lehre in der Medizin; Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung - GMA; 20051104-20051106; Münster; DOC05gma130 /20051026/
    Publication Date: 2005-10-27
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung; VOL: 22; DOC65 /20051118/
    Publication Date: 2005-11-19
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: article
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Four methods based upon the periodic acid—phenylhydrazine—Schiff reaction have been developed for the simultaneous visualization of neutral sugars with periodate oxidizablevicinal diols (hexose, 6-deoxyhexose,N-acetylhexosamine) and either sialic acids or side chainO-acyl sialic acids. In the first of these procedures, the saponification—periodic acid oxidation—2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine—Azure A—Schiff—saponification (KOH—PA—DNPH—Az—KOH) method, all sialic acids stain Azure blue, neutral sugars with oxidizablevicinal diols stain yellow and mixtures of such components stain in various shades of green. In the second technique, periodic acid oxidation—2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine—Azure A Schiff—saponification (PA—DNPH—Az—KOH), Azure Blue staining is confined to sialic acids without side chain substituents or which have anO-acyl substituent at position C7, while in the third method, the selective periodate oxidation—borohydride reduction—saponification—periodic acid oxidation—2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine—Azure A—Schiff—saponification (PA*—Bh—KOH—PA—DNPH—Az—KOH) technique, only sialic acids withO-acyl substituents at positions C7, C8 or C9 (or which have two or threeO-acyl side chain substituents) stain Azure blue. Finally in the fourth procedure, periodic acid oxidation—2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine—Azure A—Schiff—saponification—borohydride reduction—periodic acid oxidation—Schiff (PA—DNPH—Az—KOH—Bh—PAS), sialic acids without side chain substituents or which haveO-acyl substituents at C7 stain Azure blue, sialic acids substituted at position C8 or C9 (or which are di- or tri-substituted) stain magenta and neutral sugars stain yellow. Where mixtures of these components are present, a wide range of colours is obtained.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Evaluation of the intensity of the periodic acid—Schiff (PAS) staining produced following oxidation for 1 h at 4°C with 0.4mm periodic acid in approximately 1m hydrochloric acid indicated that this reagent completely oxidized all available sialic acid residues of either the sialo- or sialosulphoglycoproteins of human and rat colon or the sialoglycoproteins of rat sublingual gland. These conditions produced no visible Schiff staining of either neutral macromolecules orvicinal diols located on hexose, 6-deoxyhexose orN-acetylhexosamine residues (‘neutral sugars’) of sialo- and sialosulphoglycoproteins. Furthermore, there was no extraction of epithelial glycoproteins or de-O-acylation of side chain substituted sialic acid residues. These data demonstrate that 0.4mm periodic acid in approximately 1m hydrochloric acid can be used as a specific reagent for the selective visualization of sialic acids in the PAS procedure. Studies of the mechanism of the oxidation of neutral sugars with 0.4mm periodic acid in approximately 1m hydrochloric acid indicated that their lack of PAS reactivity was not due to the production of Schiff unreactive hemiacetals or hemialdals. It is suggested that the selectivity of 0.4mm periodic acid in approximately 1m hydrochloric acid is a result of an increase in the rate of the oxidation of the sialic acid residues together with a decrease in the rate of oxidation of neutral sugars.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Formalin-fixed tissue specimens containing glycoproteins with side chain O-acylated sialic acids were used to re-examine, compare and evaluate the usefulness of three methods based on the periodic acid-borohydride reduction-saponification-periodic acid-Schiff sequence (PA-Bh-KOH-PAS) for the histochemical identification of 9-O-acyl sialic acids (9-O-AcSA). Method I, modified from Vehet al. (1979), involved a comparison of the staining intensely obtained when both oxidation steps of the PA-Bh-KOH-PAS sequence were carried out with the selective oxidation technique of Volzet al. (1987) with that obtained when the initial oxidation step was carried out with 0.5m periodic acid for 4h at room temperature. Methods II and III, modified from Reidet al. (1978), involved an initial PA-Bh step under oxidation conditions that cleaved all the vicinal diols associated with neutral sugars and side chain unsubstituted and 7-O-acyl sialic acids. The Schiff staining obtained following subsequent re-oxidation with either 0.5m (method II) or 1% periodic acid (method III) for 4h at room temperature (PA-Bh-PAS procedure) identifies 9-O-AcSa. The results of this study indicate that (a) bovine submandibular gland acinar cell glycoproteins contain 9-O-AcSA as well as sialic acids which have ester substituents at C7 or C8, or which are di-(C7C8, C7C9, C8C9) or tri-(C7C8C9) substituted, (b) the side chain O-acyl sialic acids of the glycoproteins of Sprague Dawley rat sublingual gland acinar cells are entirely or almost entirely 9-O-AcSA and (c) it is likely that the majority of the human adult and foetal glycoproteins studied contain small quantities of 9-O-AcSA mixed with sialic acids which are substituted at C7 or C8 or which have two or three side chain O-acyl substituents. However, the interpretation of the results are complicated by observations that indicate that (a) treatment with 0.5m periodic acid either extracts or removes sialic acids from bovine submandibular gland glycoproteins, (b) some human colonic epithelial glycoproteins apparently contain a component other than 9-O-AcSA that oxidises slowly with periodic acid and (c) 1% periodic acid for 2h at room temperature oxidises a small but significant quantity of 9-O-AcSA, thus reducing the intensity of staining in methods II and III. It is concluded that when adequately controlled, methods I, II and III are capable of detecting 9-O-AcSA in glycoproteins containing large quantities of the sialic acid. However, these methods may not detect small quantities of 9-O-AcSA in the presence of large quantities of sialic acids which have O-acyl substitutents at positions C7 or C8 or which have two (C7C8, C7C9, C8C9) or three (C7C8C9) side chain O-acyl substituents. Thus, caution should be used when interpreting data that indicates the absence of 9-O-AcSA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A method of classification is presented, which divides histochemical visualization reactions into categories based on general reaction types. This scheme is dependent upon the reaction between two elements, the substrate and the probe. The substrate represents a tissue component(s) with one or more reactive groups that can combine directly with the probe. Alternatively, the substrate reactive groups are chemically modified (activation) with a suitable reagent before reaction with the probe. Probes are of three types: those that yield a coloured product, those that result in a colourless product, and those that produce a coloured product only after a further reaction. Methods used in carbohydrate histochemistry are divided into one, two and three probe reactions. Two probe reactions are further subdivided into sequences involving one or two coloured products (one and two dye sequences); three probe reactions into sequences involving one, two or three coloured products (one, two and three dye sequences). This classification permits the rationalization and organization of methods, and provides a framework for the examination of existing methods and the development of new ones.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: plasticity ; numerical integration algorithms ; consistent linearization ; finite elements ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper presents a consistent algorithm, which combines the advantages of the exact time integration of Prandtl-Reuss elastoplastic models and the quadratic asymptotic convergence of Newton-Raphson iteration strategies. The consistent modulus is evaluated by a full linearization of the exact stress update procedure. Numerical tests for a thin wall tube subjected to combined loads of tension and torsion are performed to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the consistently linearized exact stress update algorithm described in the paper. For comparison purpose numerical results of the radial return method are also given.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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