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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Ureterosigmoidostomy ; Urinary diversion ; Bladder carcinogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A modified Coffey I ureterosigmoidostomy has been developed in rats as a model of urinary diversion for studying bladder carcinogenesis and co-carcinogenesis. Diverted and sham-operated animals were killed at 1, 3 and 6 months. Excretory urograms revealed minimal hydroureteronephrosis in most diverted animals. Upper tract bacterial colonisation was 9 times more frequent in diverted animals. Approximately one-third of the diverted animals had focal cortical scarring; however, renal function was normal in all groups as assessed by serum creatinine and electrolytes. These studies indicate that ureterosigmoidostomy in rats is a satisfactory model of urinary diversion for studying carcinogenesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Heterotopic bladder ; Bladder permeability ; Permeability coefficient ; Sodium permeability ; Water permeability ; AAF permeability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A heterotopic bladder model has been described previously for the study of urinary bladder carcinogenesis and the cocarcinogenic role of urine. In the studies presented here, the permeability coefficients of heterotopic and homotopic bladders to water, sodium, and a carcinogen, 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), were measured. There were no significant differences in the sodium and AAF permeabilities, but the water permeability coefficient was significantly increased (24%) in the heterotopic bladder. However, when translated into percent absorption per hour there was no difference between the two groups because the larger volume of the heterotopic bladder cancels out the effect of the increased permeability coefficient. The heterotopic bladder epithelium maintains its functional status as measured by these permeability studies, and therefore the heterotopic bladder is a satisfactory model for the study of bladder carcinogenesis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Pseudomonas exotoxin ; TGFα ; Rat bladder carcinoma ; Human bladder carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A protein formed by fusion of transforming growth factor α withPseudomonas exotoxin (TGFα-PE40) has been shown to have the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of several carcinoma cell lines. This study was designed to evaluate thein vitro cytotoxic effects of TGFα-PE40 on rat and human bladder carcinoma cell lines with different biological potential, and normal rat urothelial cells. The rat cell lines used were D44c, LMC19, and MYU3L, which were established in our laboratory. Human cell lines used were RT4, T24, and 253J. As a normal control, we used the first-passage culture of normal rat bladder urothelium (RU-P1). We examined the number and affinity of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in these cells, the ability of TGFα-PE40 to bind EGFR, and the cytotoxic effect of TGFα-PE40 and PE40. Rat cell lines, D44c, LMC19, and MYU3L (EGFR=4.9×103–11.4×103/cell) had ED50 values (the concentration of TGFα-PE40 needed to reduce the viable cell population by 50%) of 180 pM, 540 pM and 6000 pM respectively; forc 1 (the concentration required to achieve complete inhibition of growth under continuous serum stimulation) TGFα-PE40 concentrations of 104 pM, 104 pM and higher than 104 pM respectively were required. Human cell lines, RT4, T24, and 253J (EGFR=32×103–126×103/cell) had ED50 values of 20 pM, 66 pM, and 330 pM respectively and T24 showedc 1 values of 103 pM. RU-P1 (EGFR =92.6×103/cell) had the highest ED50 value of 8000 pM. These data indicate that the susceptibility to TGFα-PE40 does not always depend on the number of EGFR, that cells having a relatively small number of EGFR respond well to TGFα-PE40, and that normal urothelial cells are more resistant to TGFα-PE40 than are cancer cells. The differential effect of TGFα-PE40 on normal and neoplastic cells provides a rational basis for its use in vivo to control tumor growth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The three major salivary glands of normal male and female Fischer 344 rats of different ages were examined for the localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor α (TGFα) by immunohistochemical staining. EGF was demonstrated only in the granulated convoluted tubule (GCT) cells of the submandibular gland, the results confirming the previous reports, and most abundantly in adult males and pregnant females. TGFα stain was localized in all three glands and was found throughout the entire duct system, excluding acinar cells. The myoepithelial cells of the sublingual gland were also reactive with the TGFα antibody. The specificity of the staining was confirmed by negative staining reaction with the absorbed antibody and by radio-immunoassay and Western blot methods. This is the first report describing the presence of TGFα in the rat salivary glands.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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