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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Louder, Robert K -- He, Yuan -- Lopez-Blanco, Jose Ramon -- Fang, Jie -- Chacon, Pablo -- Nogales, Eva -- Nature. 2016 Apr 20. doi: 10.1038/nature17984.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096372" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: The general transcription factor IID (TFIID) plays a central role in the initiation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent transcription by nucleating pre-initiation complex (PIC) assembly at the core promoter. TFIID comprises the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and 13 TBP-associated factors (TAF1-13), which specifically interact with a variety of core promoter DNA sequences. Here we present the structure of human TFIID in complex with TFIIA and core promoter DNA, determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy at sub-nanometre resolution. All core promoter elements are contacted by subunits of TFIID, with TAF1 and TAF2 mediating major interactions with the downstream promoter. TFIIA bridges the TBP-TATA complex with lobe B of TFIID. We also present the cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a fully assembled human TAF-less PIC. Superposition of common elements between the two structures provides novel insights into the general role of TFIID in promoter recognition, PIC assembly, and transcription initiation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856295/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856295/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Louder, Robert K -- He, Yuan -- Lopez-Blanco, Jose Ramon -- Fang, Jie -- Chacon, Pablo -- Nogales, Eva -- GM008295/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM63072/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM063072/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):604-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17394. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; QB3 Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Molecular Biophysics and Integrative Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Biological Physical Chemistry, Rocasolano Physical Chemistry Institute, CSIC, Serrano 119, Madrid 28006, Spain. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007846" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cryoelectron Microscopy ; DNA/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; Protein Binding ; Substrate Specificity ; TATA Box/genetics ; TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; TATA-Box Binding Protein/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Transcription Factor TFIIA/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Transcription Factor TFIID/chemistry/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; *Transcription Initiation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume Nous présentons la recette d'une nourriture artificielle élaborée pour élever des fourmis en laboratoire. Cette nourriture ne se dessèche pas et s'est avérée adéquate pour l'élevage de plusieur espèces telles queIridomyrmex humilis, Monomorium pharaonis etWasmannia auropunctata. Des sexués mâles et femelles ont été régulièrement produits dans ces sociétés.
    Notes: Summary A diet which does not desiccate was developed for rearing various ant species. this diet was found to be very attractive forIridomyrmex humilis. Monomorium pharaonis andWasmannia auropunctata in which species it permitted the rearing of colonies for long periods and the regular production of sexuals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Premature pubarche ; hyperinsulinism ; hyperandrogenism ; dyslipaemia ; cardiovascular disease.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Girls with a history of premature pubarche, i. e. appearance of pubic hair before 8 years of age, show hyperinsulinism in response to an oral glucose tolerance test. As hyperinsulinaemia has a major role in dyslipaemia, and is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, we assessed the patterns of plasma insulin concentration after a standard oral glucose tolerance test as well as fasting serum lipid, lipoprotein, and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in girls (n = 81) with premature pubarche compared with girls (n = 55) matched with them for stage and bone age to ascertain their metabolic states to identify those potentially at risk for the development of premature cardiovascular disease. Mean serum insulin concentrations were higher in patients at all pubertal stages, and associated with elevated serum triglyceride, very low density cholesterol and very low density triglyceride concentrations (p value range 0.04 to 〈 0.0001) but reduced sex hormone-binding globulin. Premature pubarche patients also displayed higher low density to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios compared with control subjects (p = 0.004 to 0.008). In conclusion, hyperinsulinaemia, decreased sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations and an unfavourable lipid pattern are common features in premature pubarche girls supporting the contention that atherogenic abnormalities composing the metabolic syndrome could start in childhood. To determine the clinical sequelae of such clustering of metabolic deviations, girls who were identified need to be followed up for the potential development of premature cardiovascular disease. [Diabetologia (1998) 41: 1057–1063]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 371 (1994), S. 783-785 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The contribution to soil fertility from the mineralization of organic matter (OM) can be estimated from budgets of carbon and nutrients during agricultural use. A more detailed picture of the mineralization process can be obtained when coarse and fine, mineral-associated ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background L-selectin (CD62L) is an adhesion molecule involved in leucocyte attachment to endothelium at sites of inflammation, and it has been demonstrated that L-selectin is rapidly shed after neutrophil activation. Recently, it has been reported that there is increasing evidence of neutrophil participation in asthma and the allergic process.Objective The present study was designed to determine whether an IgE-dependent mechanism can modulate L-selectin expression on the surface of neutrophils. Moreover, we analyse the potential implication of intracellular signal-transduction pathways and whether specific immunotherapy (IT), glucocorticoids and antihistamines might regulate this process.Methods Peripheral blood neutrophils from three groups of donors (asthmatic group without IT treatment, IT-treated asthmatic group and healthy group) were used. Cells were challenged in vitro with the specific allergen that produced clinical symptoms in asthmatic patients and also with the allergen to which the patients were not sensitive. Neutrophils from healthy donors were also challenged with allergens. Expression of CD62L on the neutrophil surface was analysed by flow cytometry, and soluble CD62L (sCD62L) in culture supernatant by ELISA. In an attempt to discover which IgE receptor is involved, we also challenged the neutrophils with monoclonal antibody to FcɛRI, FcɛRII (CD23) and galectin-3 receptors.Results When neutrophils from allergic patients were challenged with specific allergens that produce clinical allergy symptoms, L-selectin was down-regulated from the surface of those cells, accompanied by a concomitant up-regulation of soluble L-selectin in the supernatant. The challenge with antibodies against FCɛRI, FCɛRII (CD23) and galectin-3, induces down-modulation of L-selectin on the surface of the neutrophils in all three cases. Calphostin C, wortmannin and manoalide attenuated CD62L down-regulation, suggesting the potential implication of protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase A2 in the process. IT and glucocorticoids modulated allergen-dependent CD62L down-regulation, whereas antihistamines (terfenadine, loratadine and cetirizine) or nedocromil sodium did not affect the shedding of L-selectin.Conclusions We present evidence that the neutrophil surface expression of CD62L can be modulated by an allergen-dependent mechanism. The modulation of CD62L expression can be induced through the three receptors of IgE. This process can be affected by IT.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: CD14 is a most important monocyte surface molecule. Recently, it has been reported that there is an important relationship between CD14 and immunoglobulin E, and that regulation of CD14 expression is an effector mechanism mediating apoptosis of monocytes.Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether specific allergens were able to modulate CD14 expression and apoptosis by monocytes from allergic patients or whether specific immunotherapy (IT) might affect these processes.Methods: One group of adult allergic asthmatic patients had received IT for the previous 3 years. Another similar group was not treated with IT. We challenged peripheral blood monocytes from both groups of asthmatic patients in vitro with the specific allergen that produced clinical symptoms in asthmatic patients. The cells were also challenged with allergen to which the patients were not sensitive. Monocytes from normal subjects were also challenged with allergens. Expression of CD14 on the monocyte surface was analyzed by flow cytometry, and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The three groups of subjects were challenged with allergens, and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry.Results: When monocytes from non-IT-treated asthmatic patients were cultivated with the allergens to which the patients were sensitive, a significant up-regulation on the monocyte surface was observed compared with results from the healthy group (P 〈 0.003) and from the IT asthmatic group (P 〈 0.003). A significantly higher sCD14 level was observed in the culture supernatant of the monocytes from the IT asthmatic group were observed compared with those from the healthy group (P 〈 0.001) and those from the non-IT asthmatic group (P 〈 0.001). A significantly higher apoptosis level was observed in monocytes from the IT asthmatic group compared with those from the healthy group (P 〈 0.001) and those from the non-IT asthmatic group (〈0.001).Conclusions: We present evidence that the expression of CD14 on the surface of monocytes and the apoptosis of the same cells can be modulated by an allergen-dependent mechanism. These processes can be affected by IT.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Amazon rainforests ; Nutrient cycling ; Soil nutrient status ; Toposequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Amazon forests along a toposequence at San Carlos de Rio Negro (Venezuela) show distinct nutrient limitations depending on slope position. Soils were collected by genetic horizons and analysed to provide information on the relationships between soil P and N status and the nutrition of natural forest at three locations along the toposequence. The upper-slope tierra firme sites had total P concentrations between 100 and 200 μg g−1 in the mineral soil fines and between 700 and 1100 μg g−1 in lateritic nodules. Hyphae were seen to explore lateritic nodules and may contribute to P nutrition. Total P in the mineral soil of the lower slope ranged from only 3 to 130 μg g−1. In both the organic mats of the tierra firme and the humic horizon at the lower-slope tall Amazon caatinga site, 50–60% of the P was in inorganic forms, which, in the absence of P-fixing mineral soil, maintain high levels of plant-available P. As a result, the litter mats and humic horizon accounted for over 70% of the total available P in these soils. The proportion of available P increased, and P sorption decreased, downslope, supporting ecological studies which found that tall Amazon caatinga was least P-limited. Soil N and C levels show a maximum at the mid-slope and a minimum at the lower slope. Distributions of biomass C, N and P closely follow those of soil C, N and available (but not total) P along the slope.
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