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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-03-05
    Description: Antibodies capable of neutralizing HIV-1 often target variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2) of the HIV-1 envelope, but the mechanism of their elicitation has been unclear. Here we define the developmental pathway by which such antibodies are generated and acquire the requisite molecular characteristics for neutralization. Twelve somatically related neutralizing antibodies (CAP256-VRC26.01-12) were isolated from donor CAP256 (from the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA)); each antibody contained the protruding tyrosine-sulphated, anionic antigen-binding loop (complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3) characteristic of this category of antibodies. Their unmutated ancestor emerged between weeks 30-38 post-infection with a 35-residue CDR H3, and neutralized the virus that superinfected this individual 15 weeks after initial infection. Improved neutralization breadth and potency occurred by week 59 with modest affinity maturation, and was preceded by extensive diversification of the virus population. HIV-1 V1V2-directed neutralizing antibodies can thus develop relatively rapidly through initial selection of B cells with a long CDR H3, and limited subsequent somatic hypermutation. These data provide important insights relevant to HIV-1 vaccine development.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4395007/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4395007/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Doria-Rose, Nicole A -- Schramm, Chaim A -- Gorman, Jason -- Moore, Penny L -- Bhiman, Jinal N -- DeKosky, Brandon J -- Ernandes, Michael J -- Georgiev, Ivelin S -- Kim, Helen J -- Pancera, Marie -- Staupe, Ryan P -- Altae-Tran, Han R -- Bailer, Robert T -- Crooks, Ema T -- Cupo, Albert -- Druz, Aliaksandr -- Garrett, Nigel J -- Hoi, Kam H -- Kong, Rui -- Louder, Mark K -- Longo, Nancy S -- McKee, Krisha -- Nonyane, Molati -- O'Dell, Sijy -- Roark, Ryan S -- Rudicell, Rebecca S -- Schmidt, Stephen D -- Sheward, Daniel J -- Soto, Cinque -- Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Zhenhai -- NISC Comparative Sequencing Program -- Mullikin, James C -- Binley, James M -- Sanders, Rogier W -- Wilson, Ian A -- Moore, John P -- Ward, Andrew B -- Georgiou, George -- Williamson, Carolyn -- Abdool Karim, Salim S -- Morris, Lynn -- Kwong, Peter D -- Shapiro, Lawrence -- Mascola, John R -- P01 AI082362/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI100790/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 May 1;509(7498):55-62. doi: 10.1038/nature13036. Epub 2014 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA [2]. ; 1] Center for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Johannesburg, 2131, South Africa [2] Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa [3] Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Congella, 4013, South Africa [4]. ; 1] Center for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Johannesburg, 2131, South Africa [2] Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Torrey Pines Institute, San Diego, California 92037, USA. ; Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Congella, 4013, South Africa. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA. ; Center for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Johannesburg, 2131, South Africa. ; Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town and NHLS, Cape Town 7701, South Africa. ; Department of Biochemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; 1] NISC Comparative Sequencing program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA [2] NIH Intramural Sequencing Center, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [4] Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA [2] Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA [3] Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA. ; 1] Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Congella, 4013, South Africa [2] Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town and NHLS, Cape Town 7701, South Africa. ; 1] Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Congella, 4013, South Africa [2] Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; 1] Center for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Johannesburg, 2131, South Africa [2] Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa [3] Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Congella, 4013, South Africa. ; 1] Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA [2] Department of Biochemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590074" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/genetics/*immunology/isolation & purification ; Antibody Affinity/genetics/immunology ; Antigens, CD4/immunology/metabolism ; B-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology/metabolism ; Binding Sites/immunology ; Cell Lineage ; Complementarity Determining Regions/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; Epitope Mapping ; Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry/immunology ; Evolution, Molecular ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/genetics/*immunology/isolation & purification ; HIV Envelope Protein gp160/*chemistry/*immunology ; HIV Infections/immunology ; HIV-1/chemistry/immunology ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neutralization Tests ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-09-05
    Description: The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies is providing important insights into the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in ref. 1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific monoclonal antibody, termed 35O22, which binds a novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) 〈50 mug ml(-1). The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 mug ml(-1), among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed that it bound to a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current monoclonal-antibody-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis and vaccine design.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224615/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224615/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Jinghe -- Kang, Byong H -- Pancera, Marie -- Lee, Jeong Hyun -- Tong, Tommy -- Feng, Yu -- Imamichi, Hiromi -- Georgiev, Ivelin S -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Druz, Aliaksandr -- Doria-Rose, Nicole A -- Laub, Leo -- Sliepen, Kwinten -- van Gils, Marit J -- de la Pena, Alba Torrents -- Derking, Ronald -- Klasse, Per-Johan -- Migueles, Stephen A -- Bailer, Robert T -- Alam, Munir -- Pugach, Pavel -- Haynes, Barton F -- Wyatt, Richard T -- Sanders, Rogier W -- Binley, James M -- Ward, Andrew B -- Mascola, John R -- Kwong, Peter D -- Connors, Mark -- 280829/European Research Council/International -- AI84714/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI93278/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI082362/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI100790/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100645/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AI000855-15/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AI001090-05/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 6;515(7525):138-42. doi: 10.1038/nature13601. Epub 2014 Sep 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] The Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; San Diego Biomedical Research Institute, San Diego, California 92121, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1100 DD, The Netherlands. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; 1] Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1100 DD, The Netherlands [2] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186731" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry/genetics/immunology/pharmacology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/genetics/*immunology/pharmacology ; *Antibody Affinity ; Antibody Specificity ; Antigens, CD4/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Membrane/virology ; Conserved Sequence ; Epitope Mapping ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/genetics/*immunology/pharmacology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*chemistry/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp41/*chemistry/*immunology ; HIV-1/drug effects/immunology ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry/genetics/immunology/ultrastructure ; Inhibitory Concentration 50 ; Leukocytes, Mononuclear ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Receptors, CCR5/metabolism ; Virus Internalization/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-10-09
    Description: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) spike, comprising three gp120 and three gp41 subunits, is a conformational machine that facilitates HIV-1 entry by rearranging from a mature unliganded state, through receptor-bound intermediates, to a post-fusion state. As the sole viral antigen on the HIV-1 virion surface, Env is both the target of neutralizing antibodies and a focus of vaccine efforts. Here we report the structure at 3.5 A resolution for an HIV-1 Env trimer captured in a mature closed state by antibodies PGT122 and 35O22. This structure reveals the pre-fusion conformation of gp41, indicates rearrangements needed for fusion activation, and defines parameters of immune evasion and immune recognition. Pre-fusion gp41 encircles amino- and carboxy-terminal strands of gp120 with four helices that form a membrane-proximal collar, fastened by insertion of a fusion peptide-proximal methionine into a gp41-tryptophan clasp. Spike rearrangements required for entry involve opening the clasp and expelling the termini. N-linked glycosylation and sequence-variable regions cover the pre-fusion closed spike; we used chronic cohorts to map the prevalence and location of effective HIV-1-neutralizing responses, which were distinguished by their recognition of N-linked glycan and tolerance for epitope-sequence variation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4348022/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4348022/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pancera, Marie -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Druz, Aliaksandr -- Georgiev, Ivelin S -- Soto, Cinque -- Gorman, Jason -- Huang, Jinghe -- Acharya, Priyamvada -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Ofek, Gilad -- Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B E -- Stuckey, Jonathan -- Bailer, Robert T -- Joyce, M Gordon -- Louder, Mark K -- Tumba, Nancy -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Cohen, Myron S -- Haynes, Barton F -- Mascola, John R -- Morris, Lynn -- Munro, James B -- Blanchard, Scott C -- Mothes, Walther -- Connors, Mark -- Kwong, Peter D -- AI0678501/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI100645/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM056550/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01-GM56550/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI050410/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM098859/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM098859/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI100696/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21-AI100696/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000142/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100645/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AI005023-13/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AI005024-13/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 23;514(7523):455-61. doi: 10.1038/nature13808. Epub 2014 Oct 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Center for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Sandringham, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa. ; Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Duke University Human Vaccine Institute, Departments of Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics and Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, and the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology-Immunogen Discovery at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; 1] Center for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Sandringham, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa [2] University of the Witwatersrand, Braamfontein, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa [3] Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa. ; Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06536, USA. ; Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296255" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology ; Cohort Studies ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Genetic Variation ; Glycosylation ; HIV Antibodies/immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*chemistry/genetics/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp41/*chemistry/genetics/*immunology ; HIV Infections/immunology ; Humans ; Immune Evasion ; Membrane Fusion ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polysaccharides/chemistry/immunology ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; Structural Homology, Protein ; Virus Internalization
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: The HIV-1 fusion peptide, comprising 15 to 20 hydrophobic residues at the N terminus of the Env-gp41 subunit, is a critical component of the virus-cell entry machinery. Here, we report the identification of a neutralizing antibody, N123-VRC34.01, which targets the fusion peptide and blocks viral entry by inhibiting conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 subunits of Env required for entry. Crystal structures of N123-VRC34.01 liganded to the fusion peptide, and to the full Env trimer, revealed an epitope consisting of the N-terminal eight residues of the gp41 fusion peptide and glycan N88 of gp120, and molecular dynamics showed that the N-terminal portion of the fusion peptide can be solvent-exposed. These results reveal the fusion peptide to be a neutralizing antibody epitope and thus a target for vaccine design.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Rui -- Xu, Kai -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Acharya, Priyamvada -- Lemmin, Thomas -- Liu, Kevin -- Ozorowski, Gabriel -- Soto, Cinque -- Taft, Justin D -- Bailer, Robert T -- Cale, Evan M -- Chen, Lei -- Choi, Chang W -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Doria-Rose, Nicole A -- Druz, Aliaksandr -- Georgiev, Ivelin S -- Gorman, Jason -- Huang, Jinghe -- Joyce, M Gordon -- Louder, Mark K -- Ma, Xiaochu -- McKee, Krisha -- O'Dell, Sijy -- Pancera, Marie -- Yang, Yongping -- Blanchard, Scott C -- Mothes, Walther -- Burton, Dennis R -- Koff, Wayne C -- Connors, Mark -- Ward, Andrew B -- Kwong, Peter D -- Mascola, John R -- P01GM56550/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM079238/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM116654/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 May 13;352(6287):828-33. doi: 10.1126/science.aae0474.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. ; Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, USA. ; Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Boston, MA 02142, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY 10038, USA. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. pdkwong@nih.gov jmascola@nih.gov.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27174988" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-11-16
    Description: Characterization of human monoclonal antibodies is providing considerable insight into mechanisms of broad HIV-1 neutralization. Here we report an HIV-1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER)-specific antibody, named 10E8, which neutralizes approximately 98% of tested viruses. An analysis of sera from 78 healthy HIV-1-infected donors demonstrated that 27% contained MPER-specific antibodies and 8% contained 10E8-like specificities. In contrast to other neutralizing MPER antibodies, 10E8 did not bind phospholipids, was not autoreactive, and bound cell-surface envelope. The structure of 10E8 in complex with the complete MPER revealed a site of vulnerability comprising a narrow stretch of highly conserved gp41-hydrophobic residues and a critical arginine or lysine just before the transmembrane region. Analysis of resistant HIV-1 variants confirmed the importance of these residues for neutralization. The highly conserved MPER is a target of potent, non-self-reactive neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that HIV-1 vaccines should aim to induce antibodies to this region of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Jinghe -- Ofek, Gilad -- Laub, Leo -- Louder, Mark K -- Doria-Rose, Nicole A -- Longo, Nancy S -- Imamichi, Hiromi -- Bailer, Robert T -- Chakrabarti, Bimal -- Sharma, Shailendra K -- Alam, S Munir -- Wang, Tao -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Migueles, Stephen A -- Wyatt, Richard -- Haynes, Barton F -- Kwong, Peter D -- Mascola, John R -- Connors, Mark -- HSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 15;491(7424):406-12. doi: 10.1038/nature11544. Epub 2012 Sep 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151583" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Substitution ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*metabolism ; Antibody Specificity ; Cells, Cultured ; HEK293 Cells ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/isolation & purification/*metabolism ; HIV Envelope Protein gp41/chemistry/*immunology ; HIV-1/*physiology ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-11-25
    Description: Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we report the structure of V1/V2 in complex with PG9. V1/V2 forms a four-stranded beta-sheet domain, in which sequence diversity and glycosylation are largely segregated to strand-connecting loops. PG9 recognition involves electrostatic, sequence-independent and glycan interactions: the latter account for over half the interactive surface but are of sufficiently weak affinity to avoid autoreactivity. The structures of V1/V2-directed antibodies CH04 and PGT145 indicate that they share a common mode of glycan penetration by extended anionic loops. In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which-with PG9-involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406929/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406929/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLellan, Jason S -- Pancera, Marie -- Carrico, Chris -- Gorman, Jason -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Khayat, Reza -- Louder, Robert -- Pejchal, Robert -- Sastry, Mallika -- Dai, Kaifan -- O'Dell, Sijy -- Patel, Nikita -- Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Zhu, Jiang -- Boyington, Jeffrey C -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Diwanji, Devan -- Georgiev, Ivelin -- Kwon, Young Do -- Lee, Doyung -- Louder, Mark K -- Moquin, Stephanie -- Schmidt, Stephen D -- Yang, Zhi-Yong -- Bonsignori, Mattia -- Crump, John A -- Kapiga, Saidi H -- Sam, Noel E -- Haynes, Barton F -- Burton, Dennis R -- Koff, Wayne C -- Walker, Laura M -- Phogat, Sanjay -- Wyatt, Richard -- Orwenyo, Jared -- Wang, Lai-Xi -- Arthos, James -- Bewley, Carole A -- Mascola, John R -- Nabel, Gary J -- Schief, William R -- Ward, Andrew B -- Wilson, Ian A -- Kwong, Peter D -- R01 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 23;480(7377):336-43. doi: 10.1038/nature10696.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113616" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology ; Antibody Affinity/immunology ; Antibody Specificity/*immunology ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry/immunology ; Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Glycopeptides/chemistry/immunology ; Glycosylation ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*chemistry/*immunology ; HIV-1/*chemistry/*immunology ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Immune Evasion ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polysaccharides/chemistry/immunology ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-02-25
    Description: Long-term in vivo expression of a broad and potent entry inhibitor could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine for HIV-1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can stably express HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, even the best bNAbs neutralize 10-50% of HIV-1 isolates inefficiently (80% inhibitory concentration (IC80) 〉 5 mug ml(-1)), suggesting that high concentrations of these antibodies would be necessary to achieve general protection. Here we show that eCD4-Ig, a fusion of CD4-Ig with a small CCR5-mimetic sulfopeptide, binds avidly and cooperatively to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and is more potent than the best bNAbs (geometric mean half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) 〈 0.05 mug ml(-1)). Because eCD4-Ig binds only conserved regions of Env, it is also much broader than any bNAb. For example, eCD4-Ig efficiently neutralized 100% of a diverse panel of neutralization-resistant HIV-1, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates, including a comprehensive set of isolates resistant to the CD4-binding site bNAbs VRC01, NIH45-46 and 3BNC117. Rhesus macaques inoculated with an AAV vector stably expressed 17-77 mug ml(-1) of fully functional rhesus eCD4-Ig for more than 40 weeks, and these macaques were protected from several infectious challenges with SHIV-AD8. Rhesus eCD4-Ig was also markedly less immunogenic than rhesus forms of four well-characterized bNAbs. Our data suggest that AAV-delivered eCD4-Ig can function like an effective HIV-1 vaccine.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4352131/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4352131/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gardner, Matthew R -- Kattenhorn, Lisa M -- Kondur, Hema R -- von Schaewen, Markus -- Dorfman, Tatyana -- Chiang, Jessica J -- Haworth, Kevin G -- Decker, Julie M -- Alpert, Michael D -- Bailey, Charles C -- Neale, Ernest S Jr -- Fellinger, Christoph H -- Joshi, Vinita R -- Fuchs, Sebastian P -- Martinez-Navio, Jose M -- Quinlan, Brian D -- Yao, Annie Y -- Mouquet, Hugo -- Gorman, Jason -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Poignard, Pascal -- Nussenzweig, Michel C -- Burton, Dennis R -- Kwong, Peter D -- Piatak, Michael Jr -- Lifson, Jeffrey D -- Gao, Guangping -- Desrosiers, Ronald C -- Evans, David T -- Hahn, Beatrice H -- Ploss, Alexander -- Cannon, Paula M -- Seaman, Michael S -- Farzan, Michael -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AI100263/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI045008/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI058715/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI080324/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI091476/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI095098/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI098485/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR000168/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Mar 5;519(7541):87-91. doi: 10.1038/nature14264. Epub 2015 Feb 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Infectious Diseases, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA. ; Department of Comparative Pathology, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ; Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; 1] Department of Comparative Pathology, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA [2] Immunathon Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, 75015, France. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; 1] Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Incorporated, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Gene Therapy Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA. ; 1] Department of Comparative Pathology, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA [2] Department of Pathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA. ; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707797" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/genetics/immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology ; Antigens, CD4/genetics/*immunology ; CCR5 Receptor Antagonists/immunology ; Dependovirus/*genetics ; Female ; Genetic Therapy ; HIV Antibodies/immunology ; HIV-1/immunology ; HIV-2/immunology ; Immunoglobulins/genetics/*immunology ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; Neutralization Tests ; Receptors, CCR5/metabolism ; Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*immunology/*prevention & ; control/virology ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/*immunology ; *Virus Internalization
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-05-11
    Description: Serum characterization and antibody isolation are transforming our understanding of the humoral immune response to viral infection. Here, we show that epitope specificities of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies in serum can be elucidated from the serum pattern of neutralization against a diverse panel of HIV-1 isolates. We determined "neutralization fingerprints" for 30 neutralizing antibodies on a panel of 34 diverse HIV-1 strains and showed that similarity in neutralization fingerprint correlated with similarity in epitope. We used these fingerprints to delineate specificities of polyclonal sera from 24 HIV-1-infected donors and a chimeric siman-human immunodeficiency virus-infected macaque. Delineated specificities matched published specificities and were further confirmed by antibody isolation for two sera. Patterns of virus-isolate neutralization can thus afford a detailed epitope-specific understanding of neutralizing-antibody responses to viral infection.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Georgiev, Ivelin S -- Doria-Rose, Nicole A -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Kwon, Young Do -- Staupe, Ryan P -- Moquin, Stephanie -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Louder, Mark K -- Schmidt, Stephen D -- Altae-Tran, Han R -- Bailer, Robert T -- McKee, Krisha -- Nason, Martha -- O'Dell, Sijy -- Ofek, Gilad -- Pancera, Marie -- Srivatsan, Sanjay -- Shapiro, Lawrence -- Connors, Mark -- Migueles, Stephen A -- Morris, Lynn -- Nishimura, Yoshiaki -- Martin, Malcolm A -- Mascola, John R -- Kwong, Peter D -- U19 AI51794/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 10;340(6133):751-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1233989.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23661761" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood/*immunology ; Epitope Mapping ; HIV Antibodies/blood/*immunology ; HIV Infections/blood/*immunology ; HIV-1/*immunology/isolation & purification ; Humans ; Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Macaca ; Neutralization Tests ; Protein Conformation ; Serum/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-11-02
    Description: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization for children under 5 years of age. We sought to engineer a viral antigen that provides greater protection than currently available vaccines and focused on antigenic site O, a metastable site specific to the prefusion state of the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein, as this site is targeted by extremely potent RSV-neutralizing antibodies. Structure-based design yielded stabilized versions of RSV F that maintained antigenic site O when exposed to extremes of pH, osmolality, and temperature. Six RSV F crystal structures provided atomic-level data on how introduced cysteine residues and filled hydrophobic cavities improved stability. Immunization with site O-stabilized variants of RSV F in mice and macaques elicited levels of RSV-specific neutralizing activity many times the protective threshold.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461862/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461862/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLellan, Jason S -- Chen, Man -- Joyce, M Gordon -- Sastry, Mallika -- Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B E -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Chen, Lei -- Srivatsan, Sanjay -- Zheng, Anqi -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Graepel, Kevin W -- Kumar, Azad -- Moin, Syed -- Boyington, Jeffrey C -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Soto, Cinque -- Baxa, Ulrich -- Bakker, Arjen Q -- Spits, Hergen -- Beaumont, Tim -- Zheng, Zizheng -- Xia, Ningshao -- Ko, Sung-Youl -- Todd, John-Paul -- Rao, Srinivas -- Graham, Barney S -- Kwong, Peter D -- ZIA AI005024-11/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AI005061-10/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 1;342(6158):592-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1243283.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179220" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology ; Antigens, Viral/*chemistry/genetics/immunology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cysteine/chemistry/genetics ; Glycoproteins/*chemistry/genetics/immunology ; Humans ; Macaca ; Mice ; Protein Engineering ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Stability ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/*prevention & control ; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/*chemistry ; Vaccination ; Viral Fusion Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-04-27
    Description: The prefusion state of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) glycoprotein is the target of most RSV-neutralizing activity in human sera, but its metastability has hindered characterization. To overcome this obstacle, we identified prefusion-specific antibodies that were substantially more potent than the prophylactic antibody palivizumab. The cocrystal structure for one of these antibodies, D25, in complex with the F glycoprotein revealed D25 to lock F in its prefusion state by binding to a quaternary epitope at the trimer apex. Electron microscopy showed that two other antibodies, AM22 and 5C4, also bound to the newly identified site of vulnerability, which we named antigenic site O. These studies should enable design of improved vaccine antigens and define new targets for passive prevention of RSV-induced disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4459498/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4459498/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLellan, Jason S -- Chen, Man -- Leung, Sherman -- Graepel, Kevin W -- Du, Xiulian -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Baxa, Ulrich -- Yasuda, Etsuko -- Beaumont, Tim -- Kumar, Azad -- Modjarrad, Kayvon -- Zheng, Zizheng -- Zhao, Min -- Xia, Ningshao -- Kwong, Peter D -- Graham, Barney S -- ZIA AI005024-11/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AI005061-10/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 31;340(6136):1113-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1234914. Epub 2013 Apr 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. mclellanja@niaid.nih.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23618766" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Female ; Glycoproteins/chemistry/*immunology ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neutralization Tests ; Palivizumab ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Multimerization ; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/chemistry/*immunology ; Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/*immunology/physiology ; Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry/*immunology ; Virus Internalization
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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