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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-03
    Description: Genetic variation within the male-specific portion of the Y chromosome (MSY) can clarify the origins of contemporary populations, but previous studies were hampered by partial genetic information. Population sequencing of 1204 Sardinian males identified 11,763 MSY single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 6751 of which have not previously been observed. We constructed a MSY phylogenetic tree containing all main haplogroups found in Europe, along with many Sardinian-specific lineage clusters within each haplogroup. The tree was calibrated with archaeological data from the initial expansion of the Sardinian population ~7700 years ago. The ages of nodes highlight different genetic strata in Sardinia and reveal the presumptive timing of coalescence with other human populations. We calculate a putative age for coalescence of ~180,000 to 200,000 years ago, which is consistent with previous mitochondrial DNA-based estimates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Francalacci, Paolo -- Morelli, Laura -- Angius, Andrea -- Berutti, Riccardo -- Reinier, Frederic -- Atzeni, Rossano -- Pilu, Rosella -- Busonero, Fabio -- Maschio, Andrea -- Zara, Ilenia -- Sanna, Daria -- Useli, Antonella -- Urru, Maria Francesca -- Marcelli, Marco -- Cusano, Roberto -- Oppo, Manuela -- Zoledziewska, Magdalena -- Pitzalis, Maristella -- Deidda, Francesca -- Porcu, Eleonora -- Poddie, Fausto -- Kang, Hyun Min -- Lyons, Robert -- Tarrier, Brendan -- Gresham, Jennifer Bragg -- Li, Bingshan -- Tofanelli, Sergio -- Alonso, Santos -- Dei, Mariano -- Lai, Sandra -- Mulas, Antonella -- Whalen, Michael B -- Uzzau, Sergio -- Jones, Chris -- Schlessinger, David -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Sanna, Serena -- Sidore, Carlo -- Cucca, Francesco -- HG005552/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG005581/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG006513/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG007022/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- N01-AG-1-2109/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Aug 2;341(6145):565-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1237947.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dipartimento di Scienze della Natura e del Territorio, Universita di Sassari, Sassari, Italy. pfrancalacci@uniss.it〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23908240" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/*classification/*genetics ; European Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Haplotypes ; Humans ; Italy ; Male ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 10 (1995), S. 81-91 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Ancient DNA analysis ; Methodology ; Molecular Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The recovery, amplification and sequencing of nucleic acids from ancient smaples opens new possibilities in many different fields, such as anthropology, archeaology, population genetics, animal and plant evolutionary studies, and forensic medicine. The sample processing for DNA extraction and PCR amplification represents the most delicate phase of ancient DNA analysis, with a major impact on the reproducibility and reliability of the results. In this paper some extraction protocols are reviewed and discussed, with particular reference to the removal of the inhibitory substances usually present in extract from ancient tissues. The effect of contamination from extraneous DNA, a possible source of misleading results, is discussed and guidelines to detect and circumvent the problem are given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: trace elements ; diagenesis ; Arabic peninsula ; fish-eaters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Trace elements analysis, as an indicator of ancient diets, has been carried out to the human skeletal remains from the necropolis of RH5 and RH10 of Qurum (Sultanate of Oman, 3700–3200 B.C.). Soil samples from the inner part of the burials, shells, fish, turtles and herbivorous remains have been analyzed. Regarding the human bones, a first set (ribs) was related to 26 females and 41 males while a second set (femurs) was related to 22 females and 34 males. Four trace elements, among the most common indicators of diet, have been taken into consideration (barium, strontium, zinc and copper) for their stability to diagenetic effects. Manganese has been analyzed to determine the incidence of diagenesis. Data from the two sets of human bones show a narrower range of values for the femurs than for the the ribs, in agreement with a lower incidence of diagenesis in compact bones. A wider range of values from the animal samples show a higher incidence of diagenetic effects in these remains. Low levels of variability can be stressed for the soil samples. Post-mortem exchange could have more likely occurred in the outer parts of spongy bones, as manganese seems to show. The wide range of values from the ribs and, on the contrary, the narrow range from the femur indicate that an accurate choice of sample can reduce the effects of diagenesis. Regarding the alimentary habits of the groups from Qurum, the human samples (both males and females) show high rates of strontium, similar to the herbivorous. This could be associated to an aquatic diet. It is unlikely that the high levels of strontium could be linked to a high incidence of vegetables in the diet. Also archeological data seem to stress a prevalence of aquatic food in the diet. Not always do statistical analyses applied to groups with different anthropological or chronological characteristics give clear answers to the identification of ranges of values, but they have always been a valid support for the interpretation of data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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