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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-05-31
    Description: The recent discovery of small paravian theropod dinosaurs with well-preserved feathers in the Middle-Late Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation of Liaoning Province (northeastern China) has challenged the pivotal position of Archaeopteryx, regarded from its discovery to be the most basal bird. Removing Archaeopteryx from the base of Avialae to nest within Deinonychosauria implies that typical bird flight, powered by the forelimbs only, either evolved at least twice, or was subsequently lost or modified in some deinonychosaurians. Here we describe the complete skeleton of a new paravian from the Tiaojishan Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Including this new taxon in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for basal Paraves does the following: (1) it recovers it as the basal-most avialan; (2) it confirms the avialan status of Archaeopteryx; (3) it places Troodontidae as the sister-group to Avialae; (4) it supports a single origin of powered flight within Paraves; and (5) it implies that the early diversification of Paraves and Avialae took place in the Middle-Late Jurassic period.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Godefroit, Pascal -- Cau, Andrea -- Dong-Yu, Hu -- Escuillie, Francois -- Wenhao, Wu -- Dyke, Gareth -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 20;498(7454):359-62. doi: 10.1038/nature12168. Epub 2013 May 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Operational Direction 'Earth and History of Life', Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, rue Vautier 29, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium. Pascal.Godefroit@naturalsciences.be〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23719374" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Birds/anatomy & histology/*classification ; China ; Dinosaurs/anatomy & histology/*classification ; Feathers/anatomy & histology ; *Fossils ; *Phylogeny ; Skeleton
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-10-23
    Description: The holotype of Deinocheirus mirificus was collected by the 1965 Polish-Mongolian Palaeontological Expedition at Altan Uul III in the southern Gobi of Mongolia. Because the holotype consists mostly of giant forelimbs (2.4 m in length) with scapulocoracoids, for almost 50 years Deinocheirus has remained one of the most mysterious dinosaurs. The mosaic of ornithomimosaur and non-ornithomimosaur characters in the holotype has made it difficult to resolve the phylogenetic status of Deinocheirus. Here we describe two new specimens of Deinocheirus that were discovered in the Nemegt Formation of Altan Uul IV in 2006 and Bugiin Tsav in 2009. The Bugiin Tsav specimen (MPC-D 100/127) includes a left forelimb clearly identifiable as Deinocheirus and is 6% longer than the holotype. The Altan Uul IV specimen (MPC-D 100/128) is approximately 74% the size of MPC-D 100/127. Cladistic analysis indicates that Deinocheirus is the largest member of the Ornithomimosauria; however, it has many unique skeletal features unknown in other ornithomimosaurs, indicating that Deinocheirus was a heavily built, non-cursorial animal with an elongate snout, a deep jaw, tall neural spines, a pygostyle, a U-shaped furcula, an expanded pelvis for strong muscle attachments, a relatively short hind limb and broad-tipped pedal unguals. Ecomorphological features in the skull, more than a thousand gastroliths, and stomach contents (fish remains) suggest that Deinocheirus was a megaomnivore that lived in mesic environments.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Yuong-Nam -- Barsbold, Rinchen -- Currie, Philip J -- Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu -- Lee, Hang-Jae -- Godefroit, Pascal -- Escuillie, Francois -- Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):257-60. doi: 10.1038/nature13874. Epub 2014 Oct 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Geological Museum, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350, South Korea. ; Paleontological Center, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar 210-351, Mongolia. ; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada. ; Hokkaido University Museum, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan. ; Earth and History of Life, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium. ; Eldonia, 9 Avenue des Portes Occitanes, 3800 Gannat, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25337880" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Size ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology/*classification ; *Fossils ; Mongolia ; Phylogeny ; Skeleton ; Skull/anatomy & histology ; Spine/anatomy & histology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-07-26
    Description: Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Godefroit, Pascal -- Sinitsa, Sofia M -- Dhouailly, Danielle -- Bolotsky, Yuri L -- Sizov, Alexander V -- McNamara, Maria E -- Benton, Michael J -- Spagna, Paul -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jul 25;345(6195):451-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1253351.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Directorate 'Earth and History of Life,' Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. pascal.godefroit@naturalsciences.be. ; Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, 26 Butin Street, 672 014 Chita, Russia. ; UJF-CNRS FRE 3405, AGIM, Universite Joseph Fourier, Site Sante, 38 706 La Tronche, France. ; Institute of Geology and Nature Management, FEB RAS, 1 Relochny Street 675 000, Blagoveschensk, Russia. ; Institute of the Earth Crust, SB RAS, 128 Lermontov Street, Irkutsk, 664 033 Irkutsk, Russia. ; School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK. ; School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK. ; Directorate 'Earth and History of Life,' Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25061209" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology ; Epidermis/*anatomy & histology ; Feathers/*anatomy & histology ; Hindlimb/anatomy & histology ; Siberia
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-10-25
    Description: Lingham-Soliar questions our interpretation of integumentary structures in the Middle-Late Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur Kulindadromeus as feather-like appendages and alternatively proposes that the compound structures observed around the humerus and femur of Kulindadromeus are support fibers associated with badly degraded scales. We consider this hypothesis highly unlikely because of the taphonomy and morphology of the preserved structures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Godefroit, Pascal -- Sinitsa, Sofia M -- Dhouailly, Danielle -- Bolotsky, Yuri L -- Sizov, Alexander V -- McNamara, Maria E -- Benton, Michael J -- Spagna, Paul -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 24;346(6208):434. doi: 10.1126/science.1260146.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Directorate, Earth and History of Life, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. pascal.godefroit@naturalsciences.be. ; Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology, and Cryology, 26 Butin Street, 672 014 Chita, Russia. ; UJF-CNRS FRE 3405, AGIM, Universite Joseph Fourier, Site Sante, 38 706 La Tronche, France. ; Institute of Geology and Nature Management, FEB RAS, 1 Relochny Street 675 000, Blagoveschensk, Russia. ; Institute of the Earth Crust, SB RAS, 128 Lermontov Street, 664 033 Irkutsk, Russia. ; School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK. ; School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK. ; Directorate, Earth and History of Life, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25342796" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology ; Epidermis/*anatomy & histology ; Feathers/*anatomy & histology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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