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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-01-20
    Description: Understanding the determinants of healthy mental ageing is a priority for society today. So far, we know that intelligence differences show high stability from childhood to old age and there are estimates of the genetic contribution to intelligence at different ages. However, attempts to discover whether genetic causes contribute to differences in cognitive ageing have been relatively uninformative. Here we provide an estimate of the genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change in intelligence across most of the human lifetime. We used genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 1,940 unrelated individuals whose intelligence was measured in childhood (age 11 years) and again in old age (age 65, 70 or 79 years). We use a statistical method that allows genetic (co)variance to be estimated from SNP data on unrelated individuals. We estimate that causal genetic variants in linkage disequilibrium with common SNPs account for 0.24 of the variation in cognitive ability change from childhood to old age. Using bivariate analysis, we estimate a genetic correlation between intelligence at age 11 years and in old age of 0.62. These estimates, derived from rarely available data on lifetime cognitive measures, warrant the search for genetic causes of cognitive stability and change.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Deary, Ian J -- Yang, Jian -- Davies, Gail -- Harris, Sarah E -- Tenesa, Albert -- Liewald, David -- Luciano, Michelle -- Lopez, Lorna M -- Gow, Alan J -- Corley, Janie -- Redmond, Paul -- Fox, Helen C -- Rowe, Suzanne J -- Haggarty, Paul -- McNeill, Geraldine -- Goddard, Michael E -- Porteous, David J -- Whalley, Lawrence J -- Starr, John M -- Visscher, Peter M -- BB/F019394/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/505/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/55/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0700704/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701120/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 18;482(7384):212-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10781.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. i.deary@ed.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258510" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Aging/*genetics/physiology/*psychology ; Child ; Cognition/physiology ; Gene-Environment Interaction ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Intelligence/*genetics/*physiology ; Intelligence Tests ; Models, Genetic ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0022-5193
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0022-5193
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Malden, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 111 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective  To evaluate the usefulness of ponderal index (PI) and related indices of weight and length in identifying asymmetric growth, body thinness and organ asymmetry associated with IUGR.Design  Cross sectional study.Setting  Aberdeen Maternity Hospital.Population  The population includes term (≥37 weeks) singleton live births (n= 53,934) between 1986 and 1996, ultrasound measurements in 2522 pregnancies, 712 unselected term pregnancies in 1979/1980 and stillbirths (24–36 weeks) between 1986 and 1995 where the fetus was diagnosed as suffering from acute (n= 73) or chronic (n= 30) anoxic death.Methods  The strength of association between direct measures of IUGR and various indices of weight and length was determined by linear and multiple stepwise linear regression.Main outcome measures  Weight, length, PI and skinfold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, flank thighs, back) were measured at birth. Abdominal circumference, biparietal diameter and femur length were measured by ultrasound at ≥37 weeks. Ratio of liver, heart and kidney to brain were measured in stillbirths.Results  Weight alone was a better predictor of skinfold thickness, abdominal circumference and the ratio of abdominal circumference to biparietal diameter than weight divided by length raised to the power 1, 2, 3 (PI), 4 or 5. The inclusion of gestational age made little difference to the predictive ability of weight for these full term births. Weight, but not PI, was significantly different between the two groups of stillborn fetuses (chronic and acute), which had significantly different (P 〈 0.001) organ ratios.Conclusion  Body weight alone was a better predictor of anthropometric ratios, organ asymmetry and measures of thinness at birth thought to be associated with IUGR than the PI. The inclusion of a length term generally reduced the predictive ability with the highest powers resulting in the poorest prediction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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