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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-09-28
    Description: "Jake_M," the first rock analyzed by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer instrument on the Curiosity rover, differs substantially in chemical composition from other known martian igneous rocks: It is alkaline (〉15% normative nepheline) and relatively fractionated. Jake_M is compositionally similar to terrestrial mugearites, a rock type typically found at ocean islands and continental rifts. By analogy with these comparable terrestrial rocks, Jake_M could have been produced by extensive fractional crystallization of a primary alkaline or transitional magma at elevated pressure, with or without elevated water contents. The discovery of Jake_M suggests that alkaline magmas may be more abundant on Mars than on Earth and that Curiosity could encounter even more fractionated alkaline rocks (for example, phonolites and trachytes).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stolper, E M -- Baker, M B -- Newcombe, M E -- Schmidt, M E -- Treiman, A H -- Cousin, A -- Dyar, M D -- Fisk, M R -- Gellert, R -- King, P L -- Leshin, L -- Maurice, S -- McLennan, S M -- Minitti, M E -- Perrett, G -- Rowland, S -- Sautter, V -- Wiens, R C -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 27;341(6153):1239463. doi: 10.1126/science.1239463.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ems@gps.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24072927" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine-rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLennan, S M -- Anderson, R B -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Bridges, J C -- Calef, F 3rd -- Campbell, J L -- Clark, B C -- Clegg, S -- Conrad, P -- Cousin, A -- Des Marais, D J -- Dromart, G -- Dyar, M D -- Edgar, L A -- Ehlmann, B L -- Fabre, C -- Forni, O -- Gasnault, O -- Gellert, R -- Gordon, S -- Grant, J A -- Grotzinger, J P -- Gupta, S -- Herkenhoff, K E -- Hurowitz, J A -- King, P L -- Le Mouelic, S -- Leshin, L A -- Leveille, R -- Lewis, K W -- Mangold, N -- Maurice, S -- Ming, D W -- Morris, R V -- Nachon, M -- Newsom, H E -- Ollila, A M -- Perrett, G M -- Rice, M S -- Schmidt, M E -- Schwenzer, S P -- Stack, K -- Stolper, E M -- Sumner, D Y -- Treiman, A H -- VanBommel, S -- Vaniman, D T -- Vasavada, A -- Wiens, R C -- Yingst, R A -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1244734. doi: 10.1126/science.1244734. Epub 2013 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324274" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bays ; Calcium Sulfate/analysis/chemistry ; Chlorine/analysis/chemistry ; *Exobiology ; Extraterrestrial Environment/*chemistry ; Ferrosoferric Oxide/analysis/chemistry ; Geologic Sediments/*chemistry ; Halogens/analysis/chemistry ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Iron/analysis/chemistry ; Magnesium/analysis/chemistry ; *Mars ; Silicates/analysis/chemistry ; Water/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract The simple optical cell described is useful for providing supplementary information on the evolution of gases during the electrolysis of fused salts or other electrolytes. Its use with PbS-PbCl2 and PbS-PbCl2-NaCl melts demonstrated that, for anodic sulphur gas production, residual gas evolution occurs, indicating the formation of a chemisorbed species as a reaction intermediate. Dissolution of the sulphur in the melt also takes place; its rate increases with increase in temperature and sulphide concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The capabilities of a direct imaging photoelectron microscope (MicroESCA from Surface Science Instruments) have been demonstrated in a set of experiments carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using a torroidal grating monochromator in the photon energy range 20–170 eV. Photoelectrons from a 300×300 μm2 sample area are projected in the diverging magnetic field of a superconducting solenoid and an image reflecting the variation in photoelectron yield is recorded digitally with a resistive anode imaging detector. Lateral resolution is better than 5 μm. A retarding field analyzer located in front of the imaging detector acts as a high-pass filter and allows us to obtain a series of spectrally resolved images which can be processed to give a spot XPS analysis of areas as small as 5×5 μm2. Images from a sample of patterned aluminum on silicon are presented to demonstrate the potential of the instrument.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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