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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-07-16
    Description: Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to drive macromolecular biosynthesis for rapid cell growth and proliferation. RNA interference (RNAi)-based loss-of-function screening has proven powerful for the identification of new and interesting cancer targets, and recent studies have used this technology in vivo to identify novel tumour suppressor genes. Here we developed a method for identifying novel cancer targets via negative-selection RNAi screening using a human breast cancer xenograft model at an orthotopic site in the mouse. Using this method, we screened a set of metabolic genes associated with aggressive breast cancer and stemness to identify those required for in vivo tumorigenesis. Among the genes identified, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is in a genomic region of recurrent copy number gain in breast cancer and PHGDH protein levels are elevated in 70% of oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers. PHGDH catalyses the first step in the serine biosynthesis pathway, and breast cancer cells with high PHGDH expression have increased serine synthesis flux. Suppression of PHGDH in cell lines with elevated PHGDH expression, but not in those without, causes a strong decrease in cell proliferation and a reduction in serine synthesis. We find that PHGDH suppression does not affect intracellular serine levels, but causes a drop in the levels of alpha-ketoglutarate, another output of the pathway and a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. In cells with high PHGDH expression, the serine synthesis pathway contributes approximately 50% of the total anaplerotic flux of glutamine into the TCA cycle. These results reveal that certain breast cancers are dependent upon increased serine pathway flux caused by PHGDH overexpression and demonstrate the utility of in vivo negative-selection RNAi screens for finding potential anticancer targets.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353325/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353325/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Possemato, Richard -- Marks, Kevin M -- Shaul, Yoav D -- Pacold, Michael E -- Kim, Dohoon -- Birsoy, Kivanc -- Sethumadhavan, Shalini -- Woo, Hin-Koon -- Jang, Hyun G -- Jha, Abhishek K -- Chen, Walter W -- Barrett, Francesca G -- Stransky, Nicolas -- Tsun, Zhi-Yang -- Cowley, Glenn S -- Barretina, Jordi -- Kalaany, Nada Y -- Hsu, Peggy P -- Ottina, Kathleen -- Chan, Albert M -- Yuan, Bingbing -- Garraway, Levi A -- Root, David E -- Mino-Kenudson, Mari -- Brachtel, Elena F -- Driggers, Edward M -- Sabatini, David M -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-06A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-07/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 18;476(7360):346-50. doi: 10.1038/nature10350.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21760589" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism ; Breast Neoplasms/enzymology/*genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Citric Acid Cycle/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; *Genomics ; Glutamic Acid/metabolism ; Humans ; Ketoglutaric Acids/metabolism ; Melanoma/enzymology/genetics ; Mice ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Interference ; Serine/*biosynthesis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-06-11
    Description: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase is a master growth promoter that nucleates two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Despite the diverse processes controlled by mTOR, few substrates are known. We defined the mTOR-regulated phosphoproteome by quantitative mass spectrometry and characterized the primary sequence motif specificity of mTOR using positional scanning peptide libraries. We found that the phosphorylation response to insulin is largely mTOR dependent and that mTOR exhibits a unique preference for proline, hydrophobic, and aromatic residues at the +1 position. The adaptor protein Grb10 was identified as an mTORC1 substrate that mediates the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase typical of cells lacking tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a tumor suppressor and negative regulator of mTORC1. Our work clarifies how mTORC1 inhibits growth factor signaling and opens new areas of investigation in mTOR biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177140/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177140/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hsu, Peggy P -- Kang, Seong A -- Rameseder, Jonathan -- Zhang, Yi -- Ottina, Kathleen A -- Lim, Daniel -- Peterson, Timothy R -- Choi, Yongmun -- Gray, Nathanael S -- Yaffe, Michael B -- Marto, Jarrod A -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GM68762/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-09/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jun 10;332(6035):1317-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1199498.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21659604" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; GRB10 Adaptor Protein/*metabolism ; Humans ; Insulin/metabolism ; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/*metabolism ; Mass Spectrometry ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Naphthyridines/pharmacology ; Phosphoproteins/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Proteins/*metabolism ; Proteome/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Sirolimus/pharmacology ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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