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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-02-11
    Description: Electrical stimulation of certain hypothalamic regions in cats and rodents can elicit attack behaviour, but the exact location of relevant cells within these regions, their requirement for naturally occurring aggression and their relationship to mating circuits have not been clear. Genetic methods for neural circuit manipulation in mice provide a potentially powerful approach to this problem, but brain-stimulation-evoked aggression has never been demonstrated in this species. Here we show that optogenetic, but not electrical, stimulation of neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus, ventrolateral subdivision (VMHvl) causes male mice to attack both females and inanimate objects, as well as males. Pharmacogenetic silencing of VMHvl reversibly inhibits inter-male aggression. Immediate early gene analysis and single unit recordings from VMHvl during social interactions reveal overlapping but distinct neuronal subpopulations involved in fighting and mating. Neurons activated during attack are inhibited during mating, suggesting a potential neural substrate for competition between these opponent social behaviours.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="" target="_blank"〉〈img src="" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, Dayu -- Boyle, Maureen P -- Dollar, Piotr -- Lee, Hyosang -- Lein, E S -- Perona, Pietro -- Anderson, David J -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 10;470(7333):221-6. doi: 10.1038/nature09736.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Biology 216-76, California Institute of Technology, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aggression/*physiology ; Animals ; Electric Stimulation ; Electrophysiology ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, fos/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neural Inhibition/genetics/physiology ; Neural Pathways/physiology ; Neurons/physiology ; Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus/anatomy & ; histology/*cytology/metabolism/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 67 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A method based on Tikhonov regularization is used to process the volumetric flow rate against pressure drop data of different fruit purees generated by large-scale flow loops. These data are converted into shear-rate-against-shear-stress curves. Curves from flow loops with different dia are compared to verify that they are independent of dia. They are also compared against that obtained by a conventional method. Tikhonov regularization will simultaneously extract the yield stress of the purees from the flow loop data. The results obtained by Tikhonov regularization show it to be a very efficient way of processing the flow loop data of rheologically complex foods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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