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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-01-30
    Description: Non-small-cell lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Chemotherapies such as the topoisomerase II (TopoII) inhibitor etoposide effectively reduce disease in a minority of patients with this cancer; therefore, alternative drug targets, including epigenetic enzymes, are under consideration for therapeutic intervention. A promising potential epigenetic target is the methyltransferase EZH2, which in the context of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is well known to tri-methylate histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and elicit gene silencing. Here we demonstrate that EZH2 inhibition has differential effects on the TopoII inhibitor response of non-small-cell lung cancers in vitro and in vivo. EGFR and BRG1 mutations are genetic biomarkers that predict enhanced sensitivity to TopoII inhibitor in response to EZH2 inhibition. BRG1 loss-of-function mutant tumours respond to EZH2 inhibition with increased S phase, anaphase bridging, apoptosis and TopoII inhibitor sensitivity. Conversely, EGFR and BRG1 wild-type tumours upregulate BRG1 in response to EZH2 inhibition and ultimately become more resistant to TopoII inhibitor. EGFR gain-of-function mutant tumours are also sensitive to dual EZH2 inhibition and TopoII inhibitor, because of genetic antagonism between EGFR and BRG1. These findings suggest an opportunity for precision medicine in the genetically complex disease of non-small-cell lung cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393352/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393352/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fillmore, Christine M -- Xu, Chunxiao -- Desai, Pooja T -- Berry, Joanne M -- Rowbotham, Samuel P -- Lin, Yi-Jang -- Zhang, Haikuo -- Marquez, Victor E -- Hammerman, Peter S -- Wong, Kwok-Kin -- Kim, Carla F -- CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA122794/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA140594/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA154303/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA163896/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA166480/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K08 CA163677/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA140594/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA163896/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA166480/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL090136/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):239-42. doi: 10.1038/nature14122. Epub 2015 Jan 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Stem Cell Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; 1] Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Belfer Institute for Applied Cancer Science, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Stem Cell Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Chemical Biology Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25629630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anaphase/drug effects ; Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Apoptosis/drug effects ; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy/enzymology/genetics/pathology ; Cell Cycle/drug effects ; Cell Line, Tumor ; DNA Helicases/*genetics ; Etoposide/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Genes, erbB-1/*genetics ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/*drug therapy/enzymology/*genetics/pathology ; Mice ; Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Nuclear Proteins/*genetics ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Topoisomerase II Inhibitors/*pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Transcription Factors/*genetics ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-06-19
    Description: Major international projects are underway that are aimed at creating a comprehensive catalogue of all the genes responsible for the initiation and progression of cancer. These studies involve the sequencing of matched tumour-normal samples followed by mathematical analysis to identify those genes in which mutations occur more frequently than expected by random chance. Here we describe a fundamental problem with cancer genome studies: as the sample size increases, the list of putatively significant genes produced by current analytical methods burgeons into the hundreds. The list includes many implausible genes (such as those encoding olfactory receptors and the muscle protein titin), suggesting extensive false-positive findings that overshadow true driver events. We show that this problem stems largely from mutational heterogeneity and provide a novel analytical methodology, MutSigCV, for resolving the problem. We apply MutSigCV to exome sequences from 3,083 tumour-normal pairs and discover extraordinary variation in mutation frequency and spectrum within cancer types, which sheds light on mutational processes and disease aetiology, and in mutation frequency across the genome, which is strongly correlated with DNA replication timing and also with transcriptional activity. By incorporating mutational heterogeneity into the analyses, MutSigCV is able to eliminate most of the apparent artefactual findings and enable the identification of genes truly associated with cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3919509/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3919509/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawrence, Michael S -- Stojanov, Petar -- Polak, Paz -- Kryukov, Gregory V -- Cibulskis, Kristian -- Sivachenko, Andrey -- Carter, Scott L -- Stewart, Chip -- Mermel, Craig H -- Roberts, Steven A -- Kiezun, Adam -- Hammerman, Peter S -- McKenna, Aaron -- Drier, Yotam -- Zou, Lihua -- Ramos, Alex H -- Pugh, Trevor J -- Stransky, Nicolas -- Helman, Elena -- Kim, Jaegil -- Sougnez, Carrie -- Ambrogio, Lauren -- Nickerson, Elizabeth -- Shefler, Erica -- Cortes, Maria L -- Auclair, Daniel -- Saksena, Gordon -- Voet, Douglas -- Noble, Michael -- DiCara, Daniel -- Lin, Pei -- Lichtenstein, Lee -- Heiman, David I -- Fennell, Timothy -- Imielinski, Marcin -- Hernandez, Bryan -- Hodis, Eran -- Baca, Sylvan -- Dulak, Austin M -- Lohr, Jens -- Landau, Dan-Avi -- Wu, Catherine J -- Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge -- Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo -- Koren, Amnon -- McCarroll, Steven A -- Mora, Jaume -- Lee, Ryan S -- Crompton, Brian -- Onofrio, Robert -- Parkin, Melissa -- Winckler, Wendy -- Ardlie, Kristin -- Gabriel, Stacey B -- Roberts, Charles W M -- Biegel, Jaclyn A -- Stegmaier, Kimberly -- Bass, Adam J -- Garraway, Levi A -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Golub, Todd R -- Gordenin, Dmitry A -- Sunyaev, Shamil -- Lander, Eric S -- Getz, Gad -- ES065073/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009172/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009216/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143845/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 11;499(7457):214-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12213. Epub 2013 Jun 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770567" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Artifacts ; DNA Replication Timing ; Exome/genetics ; False Positive Reactions ; Gene Expression ; *Genetic Heterogeneity ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Mutation Rate ; Neoplasms/classification/*genetics/pathology ; Neoplasms, Squamous Cell/genetics ; Oncogenes/*genetics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sample Size
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: The FGFR kinases are promising therapeutic targets in multiple cancer types, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and bladder cancer. Although several FGFR kinase inhibitors have entered clinical trials, single-agent clinical efficacy has been modest and resistance invariably occurs. We therefore conducted a genome-wide functional screen to characterize mechanisms of resistance to FGFR inhibition in a FGFR1 -dependent lung cancer cellular model. Our screen identified known resistance drivers, such as MET, and additional novel resistance mediators including members of the neurotrophin receptor pathway (NTRK), the TAM family of tyrosine kinases (TYRO3, MERTK, AXL), and MAPK pathway, which were further validated in additional FGFR-dependent models. In an orthogonal approach, we generated a large panel of resistant clones by chronic exposure to FGFR inhibitors in FGFR1- and FGFR3-dependent cellular models and characterized gene expression profiles employing the L1000 platform. Notably, resistant clones had enrichment for NTRK and MAPK signaling pathways. Novel mediators of resistance to FGFR inhibition were found to compensate for FGFR loss in part through reactivation of MAPK pathway. Intriguingly, coinhibition of FGFR and specific receptor tyrosine kinases identified in our screen was not sufficient to suppress ERK activity or to prevent resistance to FGFR inhibition, suggesting a redundant reactivation of RAS–MAPK pathway. Dual blockade of FGFR and MEK, however, proved to be a more powerful approach in preventing resistance across diverse FGFR dependencies and may represent a therapeutic opportunity to achieve durable responses to FGFR inhibition in FGFR-dependent cancers. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(7); 1526–39. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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