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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-02-22
    Description: Both genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations are fundamentally important for the development of cancers, but the interdependence of these aberrations is poorly understood. Glioblastomas and other cancers with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) constitute a subset of tumours with extensive epigenomic aberrations and a distinct biology. Glioma CIMP (G-CIMP) is a powerful determinant of tumour pathogenicity, but the molecular basis of G-CIMP remains unresolved. Here we show that mutation of a single gene, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), establishes G-CIMP by remodelling the methylome. This remodelling results in reorganization of the methylome and transcriptome. Examination of the epigenome of a large set of intermediate-grade gliomas demonstrates a distinct G-CIMP phenotype that is highly dependent on the presence of IDH mutation. Introduction of mutant IDH1 into primary human astrocytes alters specific histone marks, induces extensive DNA hypermethylation, and reshapes the methylome in a fashion that mirrors the changes observed in G-CIMP-positive lower-grade gliomas. Furthermore, the epigenomic alterations resulting from mutant IDH1 activate key gene expression programs, characterize G-CIMP-positive proneural glioblastomas but not other glioblastomas, and are predictive of improved survival. Our findings demonstrate that IDH mutation is the molecular basis of CIMP in gliomas, provide a framework for understanding oncogenesis in these gliomas, and highlight the interplay between genomic and epigenomic changes in human cancers.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3351699/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3351699/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Turcan, Sevin -- Rohle, Daniel -- Goenka, Anuj -- Walsh, Logan A -- Fang, Fang -- Yilmaz, Emrullah -- Campos, Carl -- Fabius, Armida W M -- Lu, Chao -- Ward, Patrick S -- Thompson, Craig B -- Kaufman, Andrew -- Guryanova, Olga -- Levine, Ross -- Heguy, Adriana -- Viale, Agnes -- Morris, Luc G T -- Huse, Jason T -- Mellinghoff, Ingo K -- Chan, Timothy A -- R01 CA154767/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA154767-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA143798/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54-CA143798/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 15;483(7390):479-83. doi: 10.1038/nature10866.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22343889" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Astrocytes/cytology/metabolism ; Cell Survival/genetics ; Cells, Cultured ; CpG Islands/genetics ; DNA Methylation/*genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Epigenomics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Glioblastoma/genetics/pathology ; Glioma/*genetics/pathology ; HEK293 Cells ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase/*genetics/metabolism ; Metabolome/genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; *Phenotype ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-02-22
    Description: Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 have been identified in gliomas, acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and chondrosarcomas, and share a novel enzymatic property of producing 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from alpha-ketoglutarate. Here we report that 2HG-producing IDH mutants can prevent the histone demethylation that is required for lineage-specific progenitor cells to differentiate into terminally differentiated cells. In tumour samples from glioma patients, IDH mutations were associated with a distinct gene expression profile enriched for genes expressed in neural progenitor cells, and this was associated with increased histone methylation. To test whether the ability of IDH mutants to promote histone methylation contributes to a block in cell differentiation in non-transformed cells, we tested the effect of neomorphic IDH mutants on adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of either mutant IDH or cell-permeable 2HG was associated with repression of the inducible expression of lineage-specific differentiation genes and a block to differentiation. This correlated with a significant increase in repressive histone methylation marks without observable changes in promoter DNA methylation. Gliomas were found to have elevated levels of similar histone repressive marks. Stable transfection of a 2HG-producing mutant IDH into immortalized astrocytes resulted in progressive accumulation of histone methylation. Of the marks examined, increased H3K9 methylation reproducibly preceded a rise in DNA methylation as cells were passaged in culture. Furthermore, we found that the 2HG-inhibitable H3K9 demethylase KDM4C was induced during adipocyte differentiation, and that RNA-interference suppression of KDM4C was sufficient to block differentiation. Together these data demonstrate that 2HG can inhibit histone demethylation and that inhibition of histone demethylation can be sufficient to block the differentiation of non-transformed cells.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478770/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478770/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lu, Chao -- Ward, Patrick S -- Kapoor, Gurpreet S -- Rohle, Dan -- Turcan, Sevin -- Abdel-Wahab, Omar -- Edwards, Christopher R -- Khanin, Raya -- Figueroa, Maria E -- Melnick, Ari -- Wellen, Kathryn E -- O'Rourke, Donald M -- Berger, Shelley L -- Chan, Timothy A -- Levine, Ross L -- Mellinghoff, Ingo K -- Thompson, Craig B -- R01 CA078831/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA105463/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54CA143798/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 15;483(7390):474-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10860.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22343901" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3-L1 Cells ; Adipocytes/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Astrocytes/cytology/drug effects ; Cell Differentiation/drug effects/*genetics ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; DNA Methylation/drug effects ; Enzyme Induction/drug effects ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Glioma/enzymology/genetics/pathology ; Glutarates/metabolism/pharmacology ; HEK293 Cells ; Histones/*metabolism ; Humans ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors/*genetics/metabolism ; Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Methylation/drug effects ; Mice ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 7 (1975), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A histochemical study has been made on the myotomal musculature of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Four main types of fibre can be distinguished on the basis of differences in fibre size, lipid content and succinic dehydrogenase and myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase activity (ATPase activity). Early histological studies have concluded that in addition to a superficial strip of muscle small diameter ‘red’ fibres occur throughout the trout myotome. These small diameter fibres occurring in the bulk of the myotome are shown to differ from the superficial fibres with respect to their oxidative metabolism and myofibrillar ATPase. The relevance of this finding to studies on the energetics and swimming efficiency of this species are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 257 (1975), S. 161-161 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] HEBERT ET AL. REPLY-Since diffuse competition in Lepidoptera, as we view it, is the result of long term coevolution among lepidopterans, their food plants, predators and parasites, we would not expect these interactions to be strong in highly disturbed communities. The importance of analysing ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 252 (1974), S. 389-391 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The relationship between intensity of competition and species abundance is not likely to be a simple one. Much depends on the limiting factors involved in the competition. The abundance of resource-limited species is, on the short run at least, related to the abundance of the resource. The data ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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