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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The rod photoreceptors of teleost retinas elongate in the light. To characterize the role of protein kinases in elongation, pharmacological studies were carried out with rod fragments consisting of the motile inner segment and photosensory outer segment (RIS-ROS). Isolated RIS-ROS were cultured in the presence of membrane-permeant inhibitors that exhibit selective activity toward specific serine/threonine protein kinases. We report that three distinct classes of protein kinase inhibitors stimulated elongation in darkness: (1) cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-selective inhibitors (H-89 and KT5720), (2) a protein kinase C (PKC)-selective inhibitor (GF 109203X) that affects most PKC isoforms, and (3) a kinase inhibitor (H-85) that does not affect PKC and PKA in vitro. Other kinase inhibitors tested neither stimulated elongation in darkness nor inhibited light-induced elongation; these include the myosin light chain kinase inhibitors ML-7 and ML-9, the calcium-calmodulin kinase II inhibitor KN-62, and inhibitors or activators of diacylglycerol-dependent PKCs (sphingosine, calphostin C, chelerythrine, and phorbol esters). The myosin light chain kinase inhibitors as well as the PKA and PKC inhibitors H-89 and GF 109203X all enhanced light-induced elongation. These observations suggest that light-induced RIS-ROS elongation is inhibited by both PKA and an unidentified kinase or kinases, possibly a diacylglycerol-independent form of PKC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin polymerization ; cell elongation ; photoreceptor ; cytoskeleton ; phalloidin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the retinas of teleost fish, rod photoreceptors elongate in response to light. Light-activated elongation is mediated by the myoid of the rod inner segment and is actin-dependent. Inner segment F-actin filaments form bundles running parallel to the cell's long axis. We examined the mechanism of rod elongation using mechanically-detached rod fragments, consisting of the motile inner segment and sensory outer segment (RIS-ROS). When RIS-ROS are isolated from darkadapted green sunfish and cultured in the light, they elongate 15μm at 0.3-0.6μm/min. Elongation was inhibited 65% by 0.1μM Cytochalasin D, suggesting a requirement for actin assembly. To determine the extent of assembly during elongation, we used three approaches to measure the F-actin content in RIS-ROS: detection of pelletable actin by SDS-PAGE after detergent-extraction of RIS-ROS; quantification of fluorescein-phalloidin binding by fluorimetry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and image analysis; estimation of total F-actin filament length by electron microscopy. All three assays indicated that no net assembly of RIS-ROS F-actin accompanied myoid elongation. An increase in F-actin content within the elongated myoid was counterbalanced by a decrease in F-actin content within the 13 microvillus-like calycal processes located at the end of the inner segment opposite to the growing myoid. O'Connor and Burnside (Journal of Cell Biology 89:517-524, 1981) showed that minus-ends of rod F-actin filaments are oriented towards the elongating myoid while plus-ends are oriented towards the shortening calycal processes. Our observations suggest that RIS-ROS elongation entails actin polymerization at the minus-ends of filaments coupled with depolymerization at the filament plus-ends.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: photoreceptor ; microtubule ; tubulin posttranslational modifications
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. Posttranslational modifications of tubulin by acetylation and detyrosination have been correlated previously with microtubule stability in numerous cell types. 2. In this study, posttranslational modifications of tubulin and their regional distribution within teleost photoreceptor cones and rods are demonstrated immunohistochemically using antibodies specific for acetylated, detyrosinated, or tyrosinated tubulin. 3. Immunolocalization was carried out on isolated whole cones and mechanically detached rod and cone inner/outer segments. 4. Acetylated tubulin within rods and cones is found only in microtubules of the ciliary axoneme of the outer segment. Detyrosinated tubulin is also enriched in axonemes of both rod and cone outer segments. 5. Distributions of tyrosinated and detyrosinated cytoplasmic microtubules differ within cones and rods. In cones, detyrosinated and tyrosinated tubulins are both abundant throughout the cell body. In rods, the ellipsoid and myoid contain much more tyrosinated tubulin than detyrosinated tubulin. Comparisons between whole cones and cone fragments suggest that detyrosinated microtubules are more stable than tyrosinated microtubules in teleost photoreceptors. 6. Our findings provide further evidence that microtubules of teleost cones differ from rod microtubules in their stabilities and rapidity of turnover within the photoreceptor inner segment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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