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  • 1
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Cell Biology ; Microbiology ; Plant science ; Botany ; Aerospace engineering ; Astronautics ; Life sciences ; Cell Biology ; Aerospace Technology and Astronautics ; Microbiology ; Plant Sciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1: Gravity Sensing, Graviorientation and Microgravity -- Chapter 2: Methods for Gravitational Biology Research -- Chapter 3: Gravitaxis in Flagellates and Ciliates -- Chapter 4: Gravitropism in Tip-Growing Rhizoids and Protonemata of Characean Algae -- Chapter 5: Gravitropism in Fungi, Mosses and Ferns -- Chapter 6: Gravitropism in Higher Plants: Cellular Aspects -- Chapter 7: Gravitropism in Higher Plants: Molecular Aspects -- Chapter 8: Bioregenerative Life Support Systems in Space Research
    Abstract: This book summarizes what is currently known about gravity sensing and response mechanisms in microorganisms, fungi, lower and higher plants; starting from the historical eye-opening experiments from the 19th century up to today’s extremely rapid advancing cellular, molecular and biotechnological research. All forms of life are constantly exposed to gravity and it can be assumed that almost all organisms have developed sensors and respond in one way or the other to the unidirectional acceleration force,this books shows us some of these different ways. The book is written for plant biologists and microbiologists as well as scientists interested in space and gravitational biology
    Pages: XVII, 122 p. 36 illus., 24 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319938943
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: auxin ; auxin-binding protein ; auxin receptor ; ERabp gene ; differential expression ; maize (Zea mays L.) ; in situ hybridization ; confocal laser scanning microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A Zea mays cDNA clone, ZmERabp4, coding for a new member of the auxin-binding protein family was isolated. The primary amino acid sequence contains an N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence, a potential glycosylation site (Asn136-Thr-Thr) and a C-terminal KDEL motif known to be responsible for retention of proteins within the lumen of the ER. The expression pattern of the ZmERabp4 gene in various organs of maize differs from the expression pattern previously observed for the ZmERabp1 gene. The ZmERabp4 gene is expressed highly in male flower organs, whereas the ZmERabp1 gene shows highest expression in female flower parts. In situ hybridization and analysis by laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced levels of expression for both genes in the coleoptile when compared with the primary leaf of etiolated maize seedlings.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana ; GFP ; guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor ; small GTP-binding protein ; two-hybrid system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The small GTPases of the Rho family play a key role in actin cytoskeletal organization. In plants, a novel Rho subfamily, called ROP (Rho of plants), has been found. In Arabidopsis, 12 ROP GTPases have been identified which differ mainly at their C-termini. To test the localization of two members of this subfamily (AtROP4 and AtROP6), we have generated translational fusions with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Microscopic analysis of transiently transfected BY2 cells revealed a predominant localization of AtROP4 in the perinuclear region, while AtROP6 was localized almost exclusively to the plasma membrane. Swapping of the AtROP4 and AtROP6 C-termini produced a change in localization. As RhoGDIs are known to bind to the C-terminus of GTPases of the Rho family, we searched for ArabidopsisRhoGDI genes. We identified the AtRhoGDI1gene and mapped it to chromosome 3. AtRhoGDI1 encodes a 22.5 kDa protein which contains highly conserved amino acids in the isoprene binding pocket and exhibits 29% to 37% similarity to known mammalian RhoGDI homologues. The AtRhoGDI1 gene was expressed in all tissues studied. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we showed specific interaction of AtRhoGDI1 with both AtROP4 and AtROP6 as well as with their GTP-locked mutants, but not with a GTPase of the RAB family. Recombinant GST-AtRhoGDI1 could bind GFP-AtROP4 from transgenic tobacco BY2 cell extracts, confirming the interaction observed with the two-hybrid system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant molecular biology 26 (1994), S. 1237-1237 
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: plant hormone ; cytokinin ; metabolism ; conjugation ; β-glucosidase ; transgenic plants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: Nicotiana tabacum ; nucleosome positioning ; Progenitor-specific probes ; repetitive DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Members of a new family of highly repetitive DNA sequences called GRS were isolated fromNicotiana tabacum L. genomic DNA and characterized. Cloned, sequenced monomeric units (180–182 bp) of GRS exhibit properties characteristic of molecules that possess a stable curvature. The GRS family represents about 0.15% of total genomic DNA (104 copies per haploid genome) and could be derived from eitherNicotiana tomentosiformis orNicotiana otophora, two possible ancestors of the T genome of the amphidiploidN. tabacum. Sequence homology between the HRS60 (Koukalováet al. 1989) and the GRS family has been estimated to be 57%.In situ hybridization was used to localize GRS on mitotic chromosomes. Hybridization signals were obtained on five pairs of chromosomes at intercalary sites of the longer chromosome arms. The majority of GRS sequences appeared to be organized in tandem arrays and a minority were found to be dispersed through the genome in short clusters, interspersed with other types of DNA repeats, including 25S rDNA sequences. Several loci containing both GRS and HRS60 were also found. Such hybrid loci may indicate intergenomic transfer of the DNA in the amphidiploidN. tabacum. GRS sequences, like HRS60 (Fajkuset al. 1992), were found to specify the location of nucleosomes. The position of the nucleosome core has been mapped with respect to a conservedMbol site in the GRS sequence and an oligo A/T tract is a major centre of the DNA curvature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Ras supergene family ; Small GTP-binding protein ; ypt ; Restriction fragment length polymorphism ; Neurospora crassa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Small GTP-binding proteins are encoded by ras-like genes and play a central role in cell differentiation and membrane vesicle transport. By screening genomic and cDNA libraries of the Ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa with Zmypt genes from Zea mays we have isolated a member of the ypt gene family, Ncypt1. The gene resides on a 4 kb fragment of genomic DNA and contains four introns, which interrupt the coding sequence of a protein of 203 amino acid residues. The Ncytp1 gene was assigned to a single-copy gene encoding a transcript of 1.5 kb and a protein of 26 000 daltons. The gene maps on linkage group IIR between DB0001 and ccg-2 close to the Fsr-3 locus. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence and the deduced protein sequence revealed a striking homology to yeast, mouse and human genes encoding small GTP-binding proteins that are related to the ras supergene family. Homology was most significant to yptl from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens sharing 84.8%, 82.3%, and 82.3% identity, respectively. Common domains present in other small GTP-binding proteins were identified in the predicted sequence of the NCYPTI protein, and the arrangement of peptide motifs sharing similarity with well characterized, small GTP-binding proteins suggests that the NCYPT 1 protein is a GTPase. The C-terminal region extending from amino acid residues 175 to 199 shares only weak amino acid sequence similarity with other eukaryotic GTPases. Like other RAS proteins the NCYPTI protein contains two conserved C-terminal cysteine residues, suggesting post-translational modification(s) by fatty acylation required for membrane anchoring. The high degree of homology between the NCYPT 1 protein and eukaryotic YPT proteins suggests that NCYPTI could be involved in the control of secretory processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: ypt genes ; rab gene family ; Gene expression ; Nucleotide sequence ; GTP-binding ; Ras superfamily ; Phylogeny ; Green algae ; Volvocales
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In addition to the previously described gene yptV1 encoding a small G-protein we have now identified and sequenced four more ras-related ypt genes (yptV2-yptV5) from the green alga Volvox carteri. The four new genes encode polypeptides consisting of 203 to 217 amino-acid residues that contain the typical sequence elements (GTP-binding domains, effector domain) of the ypt/rab subgroup of the Ras superfamily. Comparison of the derived amino-acid sequences from the V. carteri ypt gene products and their Ypt homologs from other species revealed similarity values ranging from 60% to 85%, whereas intraspecies similarities were found to approach only 55%. The coding sequences are interrupted by 5–7 introns of variable size (70–1000 nucleotides) occupying different positions in the genes. Reverse-transcribed samples of stage-specific RNAs were PCR-amplified with primers specific to yptV1, yptV3, yptV4, and yptV5 to determine if yptV transcription might be restricted to either cell type or to a specific stage of the life cycle. These experiments demonstrated that each of these genes is expressed throughout the entire Volvox life cycle and in both the somatic and the reproductive cells of the alga. The transcription start sites of yptV1 and yptV5 were mapped by primer extension. Expression of recombinant yptV cDNA in E. coli yielded recombinant proteins that bound GTP specifically, demonstrating a property which is typical for small G-proteins. The derived YptV polypeptide sequences were used to group them into four distinct classes of Ras-like proteins. These are the first proteins of the Ras superfamily to be identified in a green alga. We discuss the possible role of the YptV-proteins in the intracellular vesicle transport of Volvox.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: cytokinin – Cytokinin conjugate –β-Glucosidase – Immunolocalization –Zea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A β-glucosidase that cleaves the biologically inactive hormone conjugates cytokinin-O- and kinetin-N3-glucosides is encoded by the maize Zm-p60.1 gene. The expression of the Zm-p60.1 gene was analyzed by Northern blot analysis and in-situ hybridization. It was found that the expression levels of the Zm-p60.1-specific mRNA changed after pollination of carpellate inflorescences. The Zm-p60.1 cDNA was expressed in E. coli and antibodies were raised against this protein. An antibody was used to determine the tissue-specific localization of this protein. By in situ immunolocalization experiments, this protein was found to be located in cell layers below the epidermis and around the vascular bundles of the coleoptile. In the primary leaf, the Zm-p60.1 protein was detected in cells of the outermost cell layer and around the vascular tissue. In floral tissue, Zm-p60.1 was present in the glumes, the carpels and in the outer cell layer of the style. In coleoptiles, as determined by immuno-electronmicroscopy, the Zm-p60.1 protein was located exclusively in the plastids.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Long-standing models propose that plant growth responses to light or gravity are mediated by asymmetric distribution of the phytohormone auxin. Physiological studies implicated a specific transport system that relocates auxin laterally, thereby effecting differential growth; however, neither ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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