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  • 1
    ISSN: 1369-1600
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Soluble adhesion molecules have been reported as risk markers of a wide range of human diseases and specific adhesion molecules may play a direct role in pathological processes. Serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) is known to be significantly elevated in smokers compared to non-smokers. We examined the acute effects of smoking a standard 2R1 research cigarette on the serum concentration of sICAM-1 and other circulating adhesion molecules (sP-selectin, sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sVCAM-1 and sPECAM-1) in heavy smokers (serum cotinine ≥ 100 ng/ml), light smokers (serum cotinine ≤ 60 ng/ml) and non-smokers (serum cotinine ≤ 10 ng/ml) by ELISA. Adhesion molecule expression on the cell surface of monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood was examined by flow cytometry. The sICAM-1 concentration directly correlated to serum cotinine concentration (p= 0.047) and nicotine load (p= 0.033) in smokers and was significantly elevated compared to non-smokers (p= 0.037). Other than a decrease in the concentration of sP-selectin over 1 hour regardless of smoking, no significant temporal alterations of any adhesion molecule were observed following the smoking experience or in the non-smoking control group. No significant difference in surface expression of ICAM-1, CD18, PECAM-1 or L-selectin on peripheral monocytes or neutrophils was observed over a 1-hour period following smoking. These data suggest that the elevated concentration of sICAM-1 in smokers is not due to an immediate effect of smoking.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A new design of single tooth implant (AstraTech, Mölndal Sweden) featuring a microthreaded conical neck and TiO blasttm surface was evaluated clinically and radiographically after 2 years in function. Fifteen patients (age range 16 to 48) with missing maxillary anterior teeth (6 central incisors, 8 laterals, 1 bicuspid) had 4,13 mm and 11,15 mm implants placed under local anaesthesia and left for a period of 6 months before exposure and abutment connection/crown fabrication. All patients were seen at 4 to 6 monthly intervals for hygienist maintenance. Radiographs using Rinn holders and a long cone technique were taken at the crown insertion and after 1 year (14 subjects) and 2 years (12 subjects). All implants were successfully integrated at stage 2, and no implants have been lost. The internal conical seal design of the abutment/implant interface facilitated connection and there were no cases of abutment screw loosening. No soft tissue problems were observed, and the gingival morphology/health was well maintained. One crown was recemented after 18 months in function, and 1 crown was replaced because of a fracture to the porcelain incisal edge. At crown insertion, the mean bone level was 0.46 to 0.48 mm apical to the top of the implant and there were no statistically significant changes in the bone level over the 2 years of the study. In conclusion, the single tooth Astra implants were highly successful and bone changes within the first 2 years of function were comparable with other systems reporting high long-term success rates.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aims: In the search for an accurate periodontal probe which does not frequently penetrate the pocket base, a new tip has been designed which is flattened, and of 1 mm width and 0.45 mm thickness. This study aimed to evaluate the physico-mechanical and clinical properties of this probe (test) in comparison to a conventional 0.5 mm circular probe (control).Methods: Photoelastic stress analysis was undertaken for test and control probe tips at 3.15 and 5 N loads. To assess probing validity, the clinical probing depth with each probe (0.25 N force) at 125 sites on 27 teeth (27 subjects), was compared with the post-extraction connective tissue level measurement. Also evaluated were probing reproducibility (1200 sites in 25 subjects) and patient comfort (30 subjects).Results: Using photoelastic stress analysis, the test probe demonstrated lower stresses and less local stress concentration than the control. Clinically, the test probe measured close to the post-extraction gold standard in greater frequency than the control – 26 versus 11 readings (21% versus 9%) exactly matched, and 90 versus 67 (72% versus 54%) were within ±0.5 mm of the laboratory measurement. The test probe was, on average, 0.13 mm coronal to the connective tissue attachment level, whereas the control penetrated 0.27 mm past this level. The intraclass correlation between clinical and laboratory readings was greater for the test than the control (r=0.81 and 0.74, respectively). Although the control probe overestimated probing depth more markedly at bleeding (0.41 mm) than at non-bleeding (0.15 mm) sites, the relative position of the test probe hardly differed with inflammatory status (−0.11 and −0.14 mm, respectively). Each probe demonstrated good clinical reproducibility. However, the test probe examination was more comfortable for the patient.Conclusion: This new periodontal probe tip appears to have greater validity, good reproducibility and produces less patient discomfort.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Gingival inflammation associated with plaque accumulation is delayed or impaired in smokers. Anecdotal evidence suggests that smokers who quit experience an increase in gingival bleeding.Method: A group of 27 subjects on a Quit-smoking programme were examined for changes in gingival health over a 4–6-week period.Results: The bleeding on probing with a constant force probe increased from 16% of sites to 32% of sites, despite improvements in the subjects oral hygiene.Conclusion: This provides further evidence that tobacco smoking affects the inflammatory response and that these changes are reversible on quitting.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: πα1-Antitrypsin deficiency is a genetically determined condition resulting in predisposition to certain inflammatory diseases due to a protease: antiprotease imbalance that is exacerbated by tobacco smoking. Limited evidence suggests that there may be a significant enrichment of mild α1-antitrypsin deficiency phenotypes in subjects with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease.Objective: To examine the prevalence of two common α1-antitrypsin deficiency alleles (PI*Z and PI*S) in a UK population of subjects with periodontitis.Subjects and methods: The prevalence of PI*M, PI*S and PI*Z allele combinations was determined in 31 subjects with periodontitis and compared with 31 healthy control subjects matched for smoking status, ethnicity, age and gender. α1-Antitrypsin genotyping was performed by multiplex real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from whole blood.Results: There was no difference in the proportion of any α1-antitrypsin genotype found in the diseased and control populations.Conclusions: We did not find evidence to support an association between mutant PI* alleles and periodontitis in a small, controlled study. Larger studies will be required to clarify the relationship between α1-antitrypsin genotype and susceptibility to inflammatory periodontal disease.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Tobacco smoking is an accepted risk factor for periodontal disease. Most studies in the periodontal literature rely on reported smoking habits which can be unreliable. This review specifically addresses this problem.Methods: Methods of assessing tobacco smoke exposure, variation in individual smoking habits, classification of former/ex-smokers, and validation of abstinence in smoking cessation studies receive attention.Discussion: Additionally, clinical studies that have examined periodontal health in subjects with validated smoking status are discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Aim: To determine whether adjunctive metronidazole therapy would compensate for the poorer treatment response to scaling and root planing reported in smokers. Method: A single-blind, randomised clinical trial of 28 smokers and 56 non-smokers, stratified for periodontitis disease severity and randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups: (1) Scaling and root planing using an ultrasonic scaler with local anaesthesia (SRP), (2) SRP+metronidazole tabs 200 mg tds for 7 days, (3) SRP+2 subgingival applications of 25% metronidazole gel. Probing depths (PD) and attachment levels (AL) were recorded with a Florida probe at baseline, 2 months and 6 months post treatment by a single examiner who was unaware of the treatment modality. Results were analysed for all sites with baseline probing depths equal to or greater than Florida probe recordings of 4.6 mm using analysis of variance. Results: Reductions in probing depth at 6 months were significantly less (p〈0.001) in the smokers (mean 1.23 mm, 95% confidence intervals=1.05 to 1.40 mm) than in the non-smokers (1.92, 1.75 to 2.09 mm). Attachment level gains were approximately 0.55 mm and there was no statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. There were no differences in any clinical measure in response to the three treatment regimens at 2 or 6 months for either smokers or non-smokers. A reduction in the proportion of spirochaetes was observed at 6 months which was less in smokers than in nonsmokers (p=0.034). Multiple linear regression analysis on probing depth at 6 months demonstrated that smoking was a significant explanatory factor (p〈0.001) for poor treatment outcome, whilst the presence or absence of adjunctive metronidazole was not (p=0.620). Conclusion: This study confirms that smokers have a poorer treatment response to SRP, regardless of the application of either systemic or locally applied adjunctive metronidazole.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Graça MA, Watts TLP. Wilson RF, Palmer RM: A randomized controlled trial of a 2% minocycline gel as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment, using a design with multiple matching criteria.Abstract Topical locally delivered minocycline is an adjunctive to non-surgical periodontal treatment, but there are few reported trials. Previous trials have reported differences between changes in probing depth in treatment and control groups, but no differences in probing attachment level. In the present study, 30 subjects were paired according to gender, age, ethnic group, smoking habits, and probing depths. Both groups received intensive oral hygiene education and root planing with local anaesthesia. Active or placebo gel was placed subgingivally at planed sites in each subject according to a double-blind protocol, immediately after instrumentation, and 2 and 4 weeks later. A periodontal examination was made with a constant force probe before instrumentation, and 6 and 12 weeks later. 2 subjects failed to complete the study, and their pairs were therefore not included in the analysis. Results were tested with analysis of covariance. Differences between groups in mean probing depth did not reach statistical significance at any visit (baseline: test (T)=5.93 mm, control (C)=5.74 mm; 6 weeks: T=3.53 mm, C = 3.63 mm; 12 weeks: T = 3.29 mm. C = 3.44 mm), but mean probing attachment levels were different (p〈0.05) at both reassessments (baseline: T=6.86 mm, C=6.83 mm; 6 weeks: T=4.93 mm, C=5.30 mm; 12 weeks T=4.91 mm, C=5.27 mm). There was also a difference in the number of sites with bleeding on deep probing at 12 weeks (p〈0.05). This trial showed that adjunctive minocycline gel provided a more advantageous outcome for nonsurgical periodontal treatment in terms of probing attachment level and bleeding on deep probing. This trial was a good example of experimental, as opposed to community, design, and used limited resources to show a clear result.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 320 (1986), S. 454-456 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We have recently described a method for the bioassay of EDRF which allows differentiation between the effects of substances on the release, action or stability of EDRF7. Briefly, 7-14-day-old cultures of porcine aortic endothelial cells on microcarrier beads are packed into a chromatographic column ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Key words RNA half-life ; Nucleotide salvage ; RNA labelling kinetics ; RNA translational efficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Protein synthesis in fish has been previously correlated with RNA content. The present study investigates whether protein and RNA synthesis rates are similarly related. Protein and RNA synthesis rates were determined from 3H-phenylalanine and 3H-uridine incorporation, respectively, and expressed as % · day−1 and half-lives, respectively. Three fibroblast cell lines were used: BF-2, RTP, CHSE 214, which are derived from the bluegill, rainbow trout and Chinook salmon, respectively. These cells contained similar RNA concentrations (∼175 μg RNA · mg−1 cell protein). Therefore differences in protein synthesis rates, BF-2 (31.3 ± 1.8)〉RTP (25.1 ± 1.7)〉CHSE 214 (17.6 ± 1.1), were attributable to RNA translational efficiency. The most translationally efficient RNA (BF-2 cells), 1.8 mg protein synthesised · μg−1 RNA · day−1, corresponded to the lowest RNA half-life, 75.4 ± 6.4 h. Translationally efficient RNA was also energetically efficient with BF-2 cells exploiting the least costly route of nucleotide supply (i.e. exogenous salvage) 3.5–6.0 times more than the least translationally efficient RNA (CHSE 214 cells). These data suggest that differential nucleotide supply, between intracellular synthesis and exogenous salvage, constitutes the area of pre-translational flexibility exploited to maintain RNA synthesis as a fixed energetic cost component of protein synthesis.
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