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  • 1
    Keywords: COHORT ; POPULATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; HEALTH ; DIET ; TOBACCO ; exercise ; UPPER AERODIGESTIVE TRACT ; METAANALYSIS
    Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could prevent cancer, but scanty data is available on head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of our study is to clarify the effect of recreational physical activity (rPA) on HNC. We analyzed data from four case-control studies, including 2,289 HNC cases and 5,580 controls. rPA was classified as: none/low (reference group), moderate and high. We calculated summary Odds Ratios (ORs) by pooling study-specific ORs. Overall, moderate rPA was associated with 22% lower risk of HNC compared to those with none or very low rPA levels [OR = 0.78, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.66, 0.91]. Moderate rPA is associated with reduced risk of oral (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.97) and pharyngeal cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.85), as well as high rPA levels (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.88 for oral cavity, OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.89 for pharynx). High rPA levels, however, is associated with higher risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.88). Stratified analyses showed that such inverse association between moderate rPA and HNC was more evident among males (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.90), subjects a parts per thousand yen45 years (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.93), and ever smokers and ever drinkers (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88). High rPA significantly reduces HNC risk among subject a parts per thousand yen45 years (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.91). Promoting rPA might be inversely associated with HNC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21842237
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  • 2
    Keywords: COHORT ; RISK-FACTORS ; WOMEN ; METAANALYSIS ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; SECULAR TRENDS ; EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM ; INTERNATIONAL HEAD ; CARDIORESPIRATORY DISEASE ; LEG LENGTH
    Abstract: Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between adult height and cancer incidence. The only study conducted among women on mouth and pharynx cancer risk, however, reported an inverse association. This study aims to investigate the association between height and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) within a large international consortium of HNC. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 24 case-control studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for men and women for associations between height and HNC risk. Educational level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were included in all regression models. Stratified analyses by HNC subsites were performed. This project included 17,666 cases and 28,198 controls. We found an inverse association between height and HNC (adjusted OR per 10 cm height = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.86-0.95 for men; adjusted OR = 0.86, 95 % CI 0.79-0.93 for women). In men, the estimated OR did vary by educational level, smoking status, geographic area, and control source. No differences by subsites were detected. Adult height is inversely associated with HNC risk. As height can be considered a marker of childhood illness and low energy intake, the inverse association is consistent with prior studies showing that HNC occur more frequently among deprived individuals. Further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism of such association would be warranted.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24271556
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0303-7207
    Keywords: (Human) ; Adenylate cyclase ; Bone cell culture ; Otosclerotic cell
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Key words Vocal cord pathology ; Contact endoscopy ; Cytological diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nine patients with laryngeal polyps, four with Reinke’s edema, three with leukoplakia, one with papilloma and one with malignant tumor were studied by means of laryngeal contact endoscopy during microlaryngoscopy. This technique allowed in vivo and in situ visualization of the superficial layer of the laryngeal epithelium after staining with methylene blue. Cell structures evaluated were the size and color of the nuclei, the nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, nuclear and cytoplasmic contours, the presence of nucleoli, mitoses and keratoses, as well as the microvascular network of the mucosa and superficial cellular changes from normal to pathological. The normal squamous epithelium of the vocal cord showed a homogeneous cellular population with regular nuclear and cytoplasmic morphological characteristics and a uniform nucleus-to-cytolasm ratio. Specific cellular epithelial patterns and several alterations of the vascular distribution were found in different pathological conditions. Cytological pictures obtained at contact endoscopy were consistent with histological findings in all the patients studied.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-9957
    Keywords: Postural control ; Virtual Reality ; Vestibular assessment ; Vestibular rehabilitation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Previous experiences on vestibular compensation showed that multisensorial stimulations affect postural unbalance recovery. Virtual Environment (VE) exposure seems very useful in vestibular rehabilitation, since the experience gained during VE exposure is transferable to the real world. The rearrangement of the hierarchy of the postural cues was evaluated in 105 patients affected by visual, labyrinthic and somatosensory pathology in normal conditions and during sensorial deprivation. They were divided into five groups according to pathology and compared to 50 normal controls. Our data show that VE exposure is a reliable method to identify the deficient subsystem and the level of substitution. Moreover, Virtual Reality (VR) would accelerate the compensation of an acute loss of labyrinthine function, related to adaptive modifications of the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, overstimulating the residual labyrinthine function. The residual labyrinthine function is poor in chronic bilateral vestibular deficit and VE exposure should provide sensory substitution or sensory motor reorganisation, thereby modulating the external spatial reference and promoting the reorganisation of the multiple sensory input. The potential for VE exposure perspectives seems very promising when dealing with the vestibular system where there is a continuous rearrangement of different sensorial informations as a result of environmental and age-related changes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Key words Supraglottic carcinoma ; Supraglottic ; laryngectomy ; Lymph-node metastases ; Neck treatment ; Prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to verify the oncological and functional outcome of conservative surgical treatment of primary supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SGSCC) and related neck disease in order to verify the effectiveness of supraglottic laryngectomy (SL) and the validity of an “observation” policy in the control of clinically negative (N0) necks. Of a total of 252 consecutive patients affected by primary SGSCC seen between 1975 and 1990 at the Department of Otolaryngology of the University of Perugia (1975–1987) and the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome (1988–1990), a subset of 132 patients treated with classical SL was evaluated after presenting sufficient clinicopathological data and a follow-up period of at least 5 years. Tumors were staged according to the 1992 UICC TNM classification and grouped into stages I-II (n = 94) and III-IV (n = 38). Comprehensive neck dissections were performed only in the clinically positive (N+) necks (25/132 cases), while in the clinically N0 ones (107/132 cases) an “observation” policy under strict follow-up conditions was adopted. After primary surgery, the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 74%. The RFS was 80% for T1-2 disease and 65% for T3. The RFS was 80% for stages I-II tumors and 71% for stages III-IV. The actual 5-year overall survival (OS) was 89% for T1-T2 tumors and 67% for T3 disease or 93% for stages I-II and 69% for stages III-IV. The OS was 89% for N0 neck and 73% for N+. The 5-year-metastasis-free survival (MFS) was 83% for N0 patients, 74% for N+, 84% for T1-T2 N0, 71% for T1-T2 N+, 81% for T3 N0 and 68% for T3 N+. In all, SL was found to be highly effective in the management of primary SGSCC. In the presence of clinically N0 neck “observation” under strict follow-up with therapeutic comprehensive neck dissection for delayed nodal recurrence, SL was suitable for controlling the neck cancer, as well as for salvaging recurrent disease. Bilateral elective, selective or functional neck dissection in every instance of supraglottic cancer was best performed only in those SGSCC patients who were more likely to have occult nodal disease on the basis of biological factors and imaging data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Key words Airway obstruction ; Vocal cord palsy ; CO2 laser surgery ; Transoral arytenoidectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A total of 39 patients with bilateral post-thyroidectomy vocal cord paralysis in adduction underwent CO2 laser subtotal arytenoidectomies with removal of the posterior third of the false and true vocal cords. Total airway resistance (R tot) evaluated before and 4–10 months after surgery showed marked preoperative impairment before and significant improvement after surgery (P 〈 0.05). In five patients revision surgery was performed due to a progressive impairment of respiratory function. A variable degree of voice breathiness was observed after surgery; the maximum phonation time mean values were lower than normal and peak sound pressure levels 63 ± 5 dB. In three cases aspiration was present in the first postoperative days, but swallowing dysfunctions disappeared within 1 week. Subtotal arytenoidectomy with removal of the posterior third of the true and false vocal folds was found to be a satisfactory surgical treatment for bilateral vocal cord paralysis in adduction. However, further research is still needed to define the surgical procedure able to balance respiratory, phonatory and sphincteric functions optimally.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Some authors have shown that lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) may help prevent nasal polyp relapses. As some anti-inflammatory drugs have been found to regulate cell growth, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of LAS on fibroblasts derived from nasal polyps. Moreover, we studied the effect of LAS on the growth of fibroblasts derived from normal skin to determine whether the response was similar to that obtained in the above-mentioned cells. Fibroblasts were obtaitied from tissue samples of nasal polyps from two aspirin-tolerant and two aspirin-intolerant patients, and from the normal skin of a healthy donor. The cells were treated with LAS (20–2000 μg/ml of culture medium). Cell growth and viability were evaluated after 3 and 6 days of culture. LAS had a growth-inhibitory effect on cells independently of their derivation. A reduction in cell growth was seen at the coticentrations of LAS tested, which correspond to those used in the local treatment of nasal polyposis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma ; Epstein-Barr virus ; Antibodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This paper reports the results of the EBV-specific antibody response in 17 Italian nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, 15 other head and neck tumor patients and 15 normal controls. Nucleic acid hybridization has been performed on the biopsy tissue from 4 of the NPC patients, and EBV-DNA was present in two undifferentiated (WHO 3) tumors, and absent in two samples of the keratinizing (WHO 1) type. EBV serology appears to be specifically related to NPC, more evidently for VCA-IgA and EA-IgG antibodies, and useful as an aid in diagnosis of NPC. However, in order to assess a prognostic value of the above markers, a greater number of patients followed for a longer period of time (at least 5 years) is needed, and is currently being pursued.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0263-6484
    Keywords: PTH ; adenylate cyclase ; Ca2+ ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We studied the effect of PTH (10-100 nM) on transductive mechanisms (adenylate cyclase activity, Ca2+ metabolism, IP3 levels) in cell cultures derived from normal and otosclerotic human bone fragments. The cultured cells were osteoblast-like but with calcitonin-receptors still present and with PTH receptors coupled with the adenylate cyclase system.The results showed that PTH activated adenylate cyclase and increased the intracellular Ca2+ levels with qualitative and quantitative differences between the two cellular populations. In particular, otosclerotic cells responded less to hormone stimulation, which is in accord with the current hypothesis of a desensitization of the receptor/enzyme complex associated with the pathological status.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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