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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Roots from Allium cepa L. (cv. Francesa) bulbs in which a maximum of two nucleoli per nucleus developed were selected for this study. Five rDNA clusters were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomal squashes (2n = 16) with a rhodamine-labelled wheat rDNA repeat. The rDNA clusters were located on four chromosomes: the largest cluster occurred on the small arm of a single homologue of the smallest pair 8. Its homologue showed two different small rDNA clusters, one near each telomere. The two homologues of the satellited chromosomes 6 also showed different rDNA contents, which were intermediate to those found in pair 8. The same five well-differentiated hybridization signals were observed in interphase cells that were inactive in transcription because they were in dormant roots, or in proliferating ones in which the synthesis of the large rRNA precursor was prevented. After multipolarizing agent was applied in anaphase followed by inhibition of cytokinesis, multinucleate autotetraploid cells were formed, which often contained more than four nucleoli. Thus, at least two of the three nucleolar organizer regions that consistently failed to develop a nucleolus in normal mononucleate cells were capable of developing nucleoli when segregated into different nuclei in multinucleate cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: C-banding ; Chagas disease ; cytogenetics ; holocentric chromosomes ; Triatoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract C-banded karyotypes, DNA content and the male meiiotic process ofTriatoma platensis andTriatoma delpontei are compared with those ofTriatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in South America. These three species present the same diploid chromosome number 2n=22 (20 autosomes+XX♂/XY♀). They also have several cytogenetic traits that differ from all other triatomines: large autosomes, C-heterochromatic blocks and meiotic heteropycnotic chromocenters formed by autosomes and sex chromosomes. In spite of these similarities, each species presents different chromosomal behavior during male meiosis, distinct DNA content and a specific amount and localization of the C-heterochromatin. The differences in DNA content are mainly due to the variation in C-heterochromatin amount, which may be interpreted as loss and/or gain of C-regions. This interpretation is supported by the presence of meiotic and mitotic chromocenters that facilitate the transference of C-positive material. The cytogenetic data presented in this work suggest thatT. infestans andT. platensis are more closely related to each other than toT. delpontei. It can also be inferred that the differences in distribution and amount of heterochromatin do not play a direct role in speciation in this group.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: chromosome segregation ; Hemiptera ; holocentric chromosomes ; meiosis ; Triatoma infestans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The meiotic behaviour of the X chromosome and one autosomal pair of the heteropteran Triatoma infestans was analysed by means of C-banding plus DAPI staining. At first metaphase, the X univalent is oriented with its long axis parallel to the equatorial plate, which suggests a holocentric interaction with the spindle fibres. After this initial orientation, kinetic activity is restricted to one of both chromatid ends. The election of the active chromatid end is random and it is independent of the end selected in the sister chromatid. At second metaphase, the X and Y chromatids associate side by side forming a pseudobivalent. After that, the kinetic activity is again restricted to either of both chromosomal ends in a random fashion. At first metaphase, the fourth autosomal bivalent shows two alternative random orientations depending on the chromosome end showing kinetic activity (DAPI positive or opposite). At second metaphase, half bivalents are oriented with their long axis parallel to the equatorial plate. Three different segregation patterns are observed. The kinetic activity can be localised: (i) in the end with the DAPI signal (46.9%), (ii) in the opposite end (44.6%) or (iii) in one DAPI-positive end in one chromatid and in the opposite end in the other one (8.5%). The existence of the last pattern indicates that the same end can show kinetic activity during both meiotic divisions. Our results provide new information on the comparative meiotic behaviour of autosomes and sex chromosomes in holocentric systems.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: chiasma terminalization ; chromosome segregation ; Hemiptera ; holocentric chromosomes ; meiosis ; Triatoma infestans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The meiotic behaviour of the holocentric chromosomes of the heteropteran species Triatoma infestans has been analysed by means of orcein staining and C-banding on squashed spermatocytes. We have focused our analysis on chromosome 3, which shows a large distal heterochromatic band at one of the ends of both homologues. At metaphase I,and independently of the chiasma position, two alternative orientations have been observed: either the hetero-chromatic or the euchromatic ends of both homologues are directed to opposite poles. At anaphase I, the kinetic activity is restricted to the same chromosome end (euchromatic or heterochromatic) of each homologue. The frequencies of these two alternatives are not random and differ significantly among the five individuals analysed. However, the euchromatic ends present kinetic activity at a higher frequency than the heterochromatic ends. At metaphase II, half-bivalents also show the kinetic activity restricted to either of the chromosome ends (euchromatic orheterochromatic). The frequencies of each alternative are inverted in anaphase II compared with those scored in anaphase I. Accordingly, those ends that present kinetic activity at anaphase I segregate reductionally during the first meiotic division and equationally during the second meiotic division. These results provide sound evidence on the meiotic behaviour of holocentric chromosomes, as regards the absence of chiasma terminalization and the modes of orientation and segregation.
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