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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The anti-influenza effects of camostat, a serine protease inhibitor, on in vivo influenza infections were evaluated. Mice which received non-adapted human influenza viruses intranasally, developed a reproducible infection with very low mortality. The infection was readily detected by the recovery of the virus from an oropharyngeal swab. Five-week-old ICR mice received intraperitoneal injections of saline (control), amantadine (known positive drug), or camostat, after infection with influenza A/Taiwan/1/86 virus. Virus detection was performed on day 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 of postinfection. Both camostat and amantadine were effective in ameliorating mouse influenza. On day 5, mice injected with camostat (45%) or amantadine (50%) showed a lower virus secreting rate than those receiving saline (90%). Additionally, camostat showed strong anti-influenza effects on an amantadine-resistant type A virus and a type B virus infection in vitro. The results show that blocking the hemagglutinin cleavage is an effective target for development of an anti-influenza agent. They also demonstrate that virus detection from the oropharynx of mice, infected with non-adapted virus, is a useful in vivo influenza model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-0426
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The monthly variation in reproductive cycle, condition factor (fatness), gonad index (GI), ovarian egg diameter and biochemical composition [RNA, DNA content and their ratio RNA/DNA (R/D)] were compared to determine the spawning season of the purplish Washington clam, Saxidomus purpuratus, collected from the west sea of Taean, Korea. All these factors were correlated to the spawning season from May to October. Monthly variation and concentration of the R/D ratio especially represented indicative information about the processes of gonad development and spawning patterns. The increases in R/D ratio in the ovaries corresponded with increases in ovarian egg diameters and the GI during the spawning season. The peak of R/D and RNA content in females was a good indicator of sexual maturation and the DNA content in males. During winter between November and January, the value of fatness, GI, egg size, RNA and DNA content were lower than in other seasons, indicating depletion of energy reserves and lower metabolic demands because of colder temperatures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 46 (1981), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of cycling temperatures (5°C for 12 hr and 25°C for 12 hr) on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium were studied. Cycling temperatures, after preincubation at 25°C for various times, resulted in more aflatoxin B1, G1, and total aflatoxin production than did constant incubation at either 25°C, which is generally considered to be the optimum for aflatoxin production, or 15°C, which is the same total thermal input as the 5-25°C temperature cycling. With increased preincubation time at 25°C, toxin production increased and the lag phase of growth was shortened or not evident. Cultures that were preincubated at 25°C for 1, 2, and 3 days prior to onset of temperature cycling showed the greatest increase in maximum aflatoxin production over the 25°C and 15°C constant temperatures. Cultures that were not preincubated at 25°C but subjected to constantly fluctuating temperatures produced maximum amounts of aflatoxin equivalent to cultures incubated at a constant 25°C. The maximum aflatoxin production at all temperatures studied occurred during the late log phase of growth and at pH minimums. Aflatoxins were found in higher concentrations in the broth than the mycelia under temperature cycling conditions, at 15°C, and at 25°C during the first 21 days of incubation, whereas greater amounts of toxin were retained in mycelium at 25°C in the later incubation period (28-42 days).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Initiation of growth, sporulation and aflatoxin production at cycling temperatures took less time than at 15°C but more than at 18°C and 25°C. A. parasiticus produced more aflatoxins on rice under cycling temperatures than at 25°C, 18°C or 15°C, while A. flavus produced less aflatoxin under cycling temperatures. A. parasiticus produced more aflatoxins on cheese under cycling temperatures than at 18°C or 15°C, but much less than at 25°C. A. flavus produced less aflatoxins on cheese under cycling temperatures than at 18°C and 25°C. Both organisms produced trace amounts of toxins at 15°C on cheese. Preincubation at 25°C for 2 days before temperature cycling did not increase aflatoxin production on rice but increased production on cheese. The rate of aflatoxin production on cheese decreased as the temperature decreased. No growth, sporulation or aflatoxin production was observed at 5°C on either rice or cheese.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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