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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Dead roots ; Fluorescein diacetate-active hyphae ; Field mesocosms ; Live roots ; Mor humus ; Mycorrhizae ; New Jersey Pinelands ; Spodosolic forest soils
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of live and dead roots on soil fungi were investigated experimentally in a spodosolic soil of the New Jersey Pinelands. Field mesocosm plots were constructed to have a layer of either C- and N-rich organic soil or a vermiculite substitute overlying a layer of sandy mineral soil with a very low organic content. The plots were also supplied with live pitch pine and blueberry roots or dead pitch pine roots in varying quantities based on anturally occurring densities (half, same, and double the ambient quantities). All plots were sampled 1 year after construction (June 1991), and three more times in two subsequent years (November 1991, June 1992, June 1993). In the presence of live roots, fluorescein diacetate-determined (FDA-active) fungal hyphae, total fungal hyphae, and soil moisture decreased significantly in the organic material, while no change was associated with the dead roots. The FDA-active fungal length in the live-root plots ranged from 40 to 165 mg-1 soil, and from 55 to 335 mg-1 soil in the dead-root plots. While the total fungal length in live-root plots remained constant over time (∼3000 mg-1 soil), the total fungal length in the dead-root plots increased from an initial value of 3000 to 〉4000 mg-1 soil at the conclusion of the study. Fungal lengths in mineral soil were higher under organic material than under the vermiculite substitute. Soil moisture was higher in the presence of live roots in mineral soils, but this did not increase the fungal abundance. Inputs of dead roots did not alter the fungal abundance. Overall, we demonstrated that live and dead roots had different effects on fungal abundance in soils with contrasting qualities, and in a spodosolic forest soil, roots could have ecosystem effects very different from those in agricultural soils.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Costa Rica ; NO production ; Nitrification Pasture conversion ; Tropical rain forest ; Acetylene inhibition ; Soil cores
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract In field studies, forest soils in the Atlantic Lowlands of Costa Rica emitted greater amounts of nitric oxide (NO) than soils from pastures that had been actively grazed for over 20 years following their conversion from forest. We measured NO production from intact soil cores from these land uses. Laboratory tests using ammonium(NH 4 + ), nitrate (NO 3 − ), nitrite (NO 2 − ), water, and acetylene (C2H2) additions demonstrate a response consistent with field studies.Forest soil cores produced more NO than pasture cores regardless of treatment. In forest soil the response toNH 4 + solution was significantly greater than response to water or an ambient moisture control. Addition of 10 kPa C2H2 caused a marked decrease in NO production in forest soil cores. These responses suggest a nitrification-linked control over NO production. Large and rapid responses toNO 2 − additions suggest that chemical decomposition of this ion may contribute to NO production. Pasture soil cores did not show a significant response to any of the treatments including NO 2 − . Low porosity in the pasture soils may restrict emission of NO produced therein.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Dead roots ; Fluorescein diacetate-active hyphae ; Field mesocosms ; Live roots ; Mor humus ; Mycorrhizae ; New Jersey Pinelands ; Spodosolic forest soils
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of live and dead roots on soil fungi were investigated experimentally in a spodosolic soil of the New Jersey Pinelands. Field mesocosm plots were constructed to have a layer of either C- and N-rich organic soil or a vermiculite substitute overlying a layer of sandy mineral soil with a very low organic content. The plots were also supplied with live pitch pine and blueberry roots or dead pitch pine roots in varying quantities based on naturally occurring densities (half, same, and double the ambient quantities). All plots were sampled 1 year after construction (June 1991), and three more times in two subsequent years (November 1991, June 1992, June 1993). In the presence of live roots, fluorescein diacetate-determined (FDA-active) fungal hyphae, total fungal hyphae, and soil moisture decreased significantly in the organic material, while no change was associated with the dead roots. The FDA-active fungal length in the live-root plots ranged from 40 to 165 m g–1 soil, and from 55 to 335 m g–1 soil in the dead-root plots. While the total fungal length in live-root plots remained constant over time (∼3000 m g–1 soil), the total fungal length in the dead-root plots increased from an initial value of 3000 to 〉4000 m g–1 soil at the conclusion of the study. Fungal lengths in mineral soil were higher under organic material than under the vermiculite substitute. Soil moisture was higher in the presence of live roots in mineral soils, but this did not increase the fungal abundance. Inputs of dead roots did not alter the fungal abundance. Overall, we demonstrated that live and dead roots had different effects on fungal abundance in soils with contrasting qualities, and in a spodosolic forest soil, roots could have ecosystem effects very different from those in agricultural soils.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Litter decay dynamics of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were assessed at the Aspen free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in northern Wisconsin, USA. Leaf litter was decomposed for 12 months under factorial combinations of 360 vs. 560 μL CO2 L−1, crossed with 36 vs. 55 nL O3 L−1. To differentiate between substrate quality and environment effects, litterbags were placed in their Native Plots of origin or transplanted into the other treatments. CO2 enrichment, regardless of O3 concentration, produced poorer quality litter (high C/N, lignin/N and condensed tannins) than did ambient CO2 (low C/N, lignin/N and condensed tannins). Substrate quality differences were reflected in the mass loss rates (k-values), which were high for litter generated under ambient CO2 (0.887 year−1) and low for litter generated under elevated CO2 (0.674 year−1). The rate-retarding effects of CO2 enrichment were neither alleviated nor exacerbated by O3 exposure. Decay rates varied, however, depending on whether litter was placed back into its plot of origin or transplanted to Common Gardens. The results of this study are species specific, but they have important implications for understanding the processes regulating storage of fixed C and the release of CO2 from northern forest ecosystems.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1526-100X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We assessed the vertical growth and mycorrhizal infection of woody plant roots on a closed landfill, using tree and shrub clusters that had been previously installed in patches of increasing size to establish protocols for woodland restoration. The density of the fine roots of shrubs, which had poor-to-moderate mycorrhizal infection, decreased strongly with increasing depth. Oak (Quercus) seedlings planted within and outside patches were assessed for ectomycorrhizal infection. Oak root systems were mycorrhizal, but root-tip proliferation was improved and ectomycorrhizal composition was influenced by woody debris in the mineral soil. Most surviving oaks were found within patches, but all seedlings showed poor growth: most taproots were deflected horizontally above the boundary between surface soil and subsoil layers (〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:10612971:REC6310:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉−15 cm). Abrupt decreases in pH between surface and subsurface horizons (6.9 versus 5.3), together with poor drainage and aeration of the latter soil, were probably responsible for poor root growth. Root growth of greenhouse-grown pine and maple seedlings was similarly restricted in pots packed with topsoil over subsoil material. Our results suggest that many current specifications for the cover of closed landfills will not permit restoration of native woody plant communities because of physical limitations to root growth and infectivity. The structure of the engineered soil must address basic plant growth requirements as well as traditional concerns of drainage and barrier protection.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1526-100X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Closed or abandoned landfills represent significant land areas, often in or near urban centers, that are potential sites for ecological restoration of native woodlands. But current guidelines in many jurisdictions do not allow for the installation of trees or shrubs above landfill clay caps, although these plants have many environmental, functional, and aesthetic advantages, including a rapid start to community succession. Typical closure procedures for capped landfills include only a grass cover to control moisture infiltration and impede soil erosion. The main concern that limits the application of a woody cover to a closed landfill is that roots may penetrate and weaken the clay cap. As part of a comprehensive experimental program on woodland restoration, we installed 22 tree and shrub species on Staten Island, New York (the Fresh Kills Sanitary Landfill). We found no evidence that roots of the transplanted woody plants penetrate caps used on these landfills. Root growth requirements and dynamics stop penetration of these materials. Anoxic and acidic conditions were found in the sandy subsoil above the cap, as indicated by corrosion patterns on steel test rods. Also, the intensity of mycorrhizal infection on the experimental plants was high in the surface soil and decreased progressively with increasing soil depth. The potential vertical rooting depth during this time period was greater than that occurring over the clay cap. This was shown from data collected on a nearby control site, where seven of the species were installed on an engineered soil lacking a clay barrier layer, and roots of all seven species penetrated deeper than on the landfill. The engineered landfill soils are poor growth media for roots, and below ground constraints that limit restoration on these sites must be addressed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: Costa Rica ; deforestation ; denitrification ; nitrate ; nitrous oxide ; soluble carbon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Nitrous oxide production was measured in intact cores taken from active pasture and old-growth forest Inceptisols in the Atlantic Lowlands of Costa Rica. Following additions of aqueous KNO3 or glucose, or the two combined amendments, the cores were incubated in the laboratory to determine if N2O production rates were either N-limited or C-limited in the two land use types. Differences in rates of denitrification (N22O + N2 production) among amended forest and pasture soils were determined by addition of 10% C2H2. The forest soils were relatively insensitive to all amendment additions, including the acetylene block. Forest N2O production rates among the treatments did not differ from the controls, and were consistently lower than those of the pasture soils. With the addition of glucose plus nitrate to the forest soils, production of N2O was three times greater than the controls, although this increase was not statistically significant. On the other hand, the pasture soils were definitely nitrogen-limited since N2O production rates were increased substantially beyond controls by all the amendments which contained nitrate, despite the very low N level (5 mg N kg−1 soil) relative to typical fertilizer applications. With respect to the nitrate plus glucose plus acetylene treatment, denitrification was high in the pasture soils; N2O production in the presence of C2H2 was 150% of the rate of N2O production measured in the absence of the acetylene block. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of agricultural land use practices and subsequent impacts of disturbance on N2O release.
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