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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Euglena gracilis ; Chloroplast genome ; psb C ; Intron ORF
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We retrieved a 1.6 kbp intron separating two exons of the psb C gene which codes for the 44 kDa reaction center protein of photosystem II. This intron is 3 to 4 times the size of all previously sequenced Euglena gracilis chloroplast introns. It contains an open reading frame of 458 codons potentially coding for a basic protein of 54 kDa of yet unknown function. The intron boundaries follow consensus sequences established for chloroplast introns related to class II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Its 3′-terminal segment has structural features similar to class II mitochondrial introns with an invariant base A as possible branch point for lariat formation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Survival of alginate-entrapped cells of Azospirillum lipoferum was studied during dehydration using a dry air stream and during prolonged storage at various constant water activity values (aw). During the drying operation, the viability loss remained almost constant from the initial water content to 0.35 g water/g dry weight (DW) corresponding to a 98.5% water removal, strongly increased until a water content of 0.25 g/g DW and then stopped until the end of the drying operational (final aw 0.18). A water content of 0.25 g/g DW (aw=0.55) corresponded to the critical point of the moisture sorption isotherm curve from which water became restricted to the dry material. A high drying rate (5 g/g DW per hour) was shown to be more detrimental for cell viability than a low drying rate (1.18 g/g DW per hour). When the product was stored in a closed chamber with a regulated aw (0.23), the number of living cells decreased during a short period (less than 15 days) corresponding to the product aw stabilization, and then remained constant for more than 150 days. In addition, cell survival during storage was not affected by aw values in the range 0–0.55. Above aw=0.55, the higher the aw and the storage duration, the lower the residual survival percentage. The influence of the drying and storage conditions on the cell death rate are discussed with regard to both the mechanisms generally involved in viability loss and the hydration properties of water.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0452
    Keywords: Distributed systems ; Validation methods ; Specification ; Finite state machine ; Statetransition graph ; Sequential behaviour ; Parallel behaviour ; Tests ; Environment ; System anomalies ; Protocol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents exhaustive analysis and simulation for distributed systems validation. Exhaustive analysis makes possible to detect quickly several types of errors, for instance, unspecified reception of signals, errors in timer management, deadlock, errors in precedence, etc. But, in general, exhaustive analysis can only be applied to a simplified model of the distributed system due to the state explosion problem. On the other hand, simulation permits accurate tests and confronts the distributed system to complex situations. We think both forms of validation are complementary. Validation was done on systems specified in the SDL language, using OVAL, a tool for specification validation developed at CNET, Paris A. This tool allows exhaustive analysis and simulation of SDL specified systems. We illustrate our results with several examples.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-5947
    Keywords: Takayasu's disease ; intestinal ischemia ; superior mesenteric artery ; mesenteric infarction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Obstructive lesions of the visceral arteries in Takayasu's disease are common but rarely symptomatic. This report concerns two patients with Takayasu's disease who died of mesenteric infarction due to superior mesenteric artery thrombosis. Prophylactic revascularization of the visceral arteries in Takayasu's disease remains controversial, and lesions can be more severe than classically recognized.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: soybean seedlings ; eEF-1α ; tef genes ; cDNA ; genomic DNA ; dark/light transcription ; intron
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A cDNA and a genomic DNA library from soybean (Glycine max L.) were used to identify and sequence two genes coding for the α-subunit of the translation elongation factor eEF-1. Within the coding part, the two genes (tefS1 andtefS2) diverge in 80 wobble positions thus yielding an identical protein composed of 447 amino acids. The soybean protein has about 95% similarity with eEF-1α proteins ofArabidopsis thaliana and tomato. Both genesS1 andS2 contain, within the coding part at a site seemingly unique to higher plants, a single short intron of 86 and 116 nucleotides, respectively. The untranslated leader part of both genes is interrupted by a large intron (partially sequenced). GenesS1 andS2 are transcribed in young leaves. cDNA and gene-specific oligonucleotide probes interact with a unique transcript of close to 1.9 kb. Northern hybridization studies using RNAs from dark- and light-grown seedlings show that light sharply increases the level of stable transcripts (1.9 kb). A peak value is measured after about 3 h of illumination, afterwards the transcript concentration drops to about 10% of the peak value. GenesS1 andS2 follow a similar transcription pattern in developing seedling leaves, which is distinct from that of therbcS genes measured in parallel experiments. According to northern results,S1 transcripts are more abundant in leaves at all measured stages of development thanS2 transcripts.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: chloroplast ; Euglena gracilis ; ORF406 ; rRNA-mRNA co-transcript ; supplementary 16 S rRNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The chloroplast genome of Euglena gracilis contains a supplementary gene for a 16 S rRNA (s16 S rrn gene), which is not part of a complete rrn operon. An open reading frame (ORF406) is located downstream of the s16 S rrn gene. Chloroplast RNA was hybridized with cloned DNA fragments of this region and the hybrids were analysed by electron microscopy and S1-nuclease protection experiments. The s16 S rrn gene and the ORF406 are transcribed as one continuous 3.6 kb long RNA, which starts just upstream of the 5′-end of the s16 S rrn gene. The 3′-end occurs at multiple sites within a region of 700 bases downstream of the ORF. Northern blot analysis shows that the abundance of the transcript is comparable with that of other chloroplast mRNAs.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: carbon dioxide evolution rate ; mass transfer ; modeling ; biodegradation ; pH ; kinetics ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Respirometry is a precious tool for determining the activity of microbial populations. The measurement of oxygen uptake rate is commonly used but cannot be applied in anoxic or anaerobic conditions or for insoluble substrate. Carbon dioxide production can be measured accurately by gas balance techniques, especially with an on-line infrared analyzer. Unfortunately, in dynamic systems, and hence in the case of short-term batch experiments, chemical and physical transfer limitations for carbon dioxide can be sufficient to make the observed carbon dioxide evolution rate (OCER) deduced from direct gas analysis very different from the biological carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER).To take these transfer phenomena into account and calculate the real CER, a mathematical model based on mass balance equations is proposed. In this work, the chemical equilibrium involving carbon dioxide and the measured pH evolution of the liquid medium are considered. The mass transfer from the liquid to the gas phase is described, and the response time of the analysis system is evaluated.Global mass transfer coefficients (KLa) for carbon dioxide and oxygen are determined and compared to one another, improving the choice of hydrodynamic hypotheses. The equations presented are found to give good predictions of the disturbance of gaseous responses during pH changes.Finally, the mathematical model developed associated with a laboratory-scale reactor, is used successfully to determine the CER in nonstationary conditions, during batch experiments performed with microorganisms coming from an activated sludge system. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 53: 243-252, 1997.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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