Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 0178-515X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The morphology of filamentous organisms in submerged cultures varies between the pelleted and the dispersed forms depending on the strain of organism and the culture conditions. The dispersed form consists of branched and unbranched hyphae (freely dispersed form) and clumps (filamentous material in aggregates). In agitated systems, the choice of impeller geometry as well as the total power input determines the mechanical forces that might affect the morphology of filamentous species (e.g. by fragmentation) with simultaneous effects on their growth and productivity. To find out more about fragmentation of Penicillium chrysogenum caused by mechanical forces of different impeller types and agitation intensities, a population balance model has been developed. The projected area measured by image analysis was used to characterise the morphology (size) of the mycelia. In the model, the kinetics of mycelial fragmentation were expressed by a breakage rate constant K, which was assumed to be only dependent on the agitation conditions. The fragmentation rate was considered to follow a first order process in size (area) which was based on assumptions made for the mechanism of mycelial break-up, and work reported in the literature. Previously published mean and distributional data from off-line fragmentation experiments in ungassed vessels of sizes from 1.4 to 180 l were used to validate the model. For the first time a model has been found that is capable of fitting changes in mycelial morphology caused by mechanical forces generated by different impellers at various power inputs and scales. Besides the mean projected areas of the mycelia, the model allowed simulations of the projected area distributions, and changes in those distributions because of the agitation. At the small scale (1.4 l), the breakage rate constant K could be correlated well with either impeller tip speed or the “energy dissipation/circulation function”, which is based on mycelial circulation through the impeller region. The simpler but commonly used power input per unit tank volume did not correlate K adequately. The scale up data showed that only the “energy dissipation/circulation function” correlated mycelial fragmentation well. The dependence of K on biomass concentration, and its detailed dependence (if any) on the fermentation conditions at sampling, which might indicate likely breakage mechanisms, remain to be elucidated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The synthesis of ketone bodies by intact isolated rat-liver mitochondria has been studied at varying rates of acetyl-CoA production and of acetyl-CoA utilization in the Krebs cycle. Factors which enhanced the rate of acetyl-CoA production caused an increase in the fraction of acetyl-CoA which was incorporated into ketone bodies. On the other hand, it was found that factors which stimulated the formation of citrate lowered the relative rate of ketogenesis. It is concluded that acetyl-CoA is preferentially used for citrate synthesis, if the level of oxaloacetate in the mitochondrial matrix space is adequate. The intramitochondrial level of oxaloacetate, which is determined by the malate concentration and the ratio of NADH over NAD+, is the main factor controlling the rate of citrate synthesis. The ATP/ADP ratioper se does not affect the activity of citrate synthase in thisin vitro system. Ketogenesis can be described as an overflow of acetyl-groups: Ketone-body formation is stimulated only when the rate of acetyl-CoA production increases beyond the capacity for citrate synthesis. The interaction between fatty acid oxidation and pyruvate metabolism and the effects of long-chain acyl-CoA on mitochondrial metabolism are discussed. Ketone bodies which were generated during the oxidation of [1-14C] fatty acids were preferentially labelled in their carboxyl group. This carboxyl group had the same specific activity as the acetyl-CoA pool, whereas the specific activity of the acetone moiety of acetoacetate was much lower, especially at low rates of ketone-body formation. The activities of acetoacetyl-CoA deacylase and the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway were compared in soluble and mitochondrial fractions of rat- and cow-liver in different ketotic states. In rat-liver mitochondria, both pathways of acetoacetate synthesis were stimulated upon starvation or in alloxan diabetes. In cow liver, only the HMG-CoA pathway was increased during ketosis in the mitochondrial as well as in the soluble fraction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 44 (1994), S. 655-660 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: morphology ; vacuolation ; hyphal fragmentation ; Penicillium chrysogenum ; image analysis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A link between vacuolation and fragmentation of Penicillium chrysogenum mycelia in stirred tank submerged fermentations is reported. Quantitative information on vocuolation and morphology was obtained by image analysis. In fed-batch fermentations the coincidence of the events of rapid vacuolation and the fall of the mean total and main hyphal lengths suggests that hyphal fragmentation is not necessarily due to “shear” alone. The physiological state of the hyphae, characterized by the proportions of vaccuoles, was found to have a significant influence on the breakage of mycelial hyphae, It was found that the fragmentation was greater when the hyphae became heavily vacuolated following nutrient limitation in the culture, i.e., during the switch from the rapid growth to the production phase. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 51 (1996), S. 558-572 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: structured model ; population balance model ; differentiation ; vacuolation ; Penicillium chrysogenum ; image analysis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A structured kinetic model describing growth, differentiation, and penicillin production in submerged Penicillium chrysogenum fermentations is reported. The filamentous hyphae are divided into four distinct regions on the basis of the activities and structure of hyphal compartments, viz., actively growing (mainly apical) regions, nongrowing or penicillin producing regions, vacuoles, and degenerated or metabolically inactive regions. A mechanistic approach is taken to give quantitative descriptions of differentiation and degeneration as a consequence of vacuolation. The growth and degeneration of vacuoles are expressed in the form of a population balance. The model assumes that newly generated vacuoles appear by differentiation of healthy regions, grow in size with limitation of available substrate, and eventually give rise to empty hyphal compartments. In the model the penicillin production is related to the amounts of the nongrowing regions of the hyphae. The model is used for successful predictions of the amounts of the four hyphal regions and the penicillin G production rate throughout the fed-batch fermentations of an industrial P. chrysogenum strain under different glucose feeding regimes. Quantitative information on proportions of the hyphal regions was obtained from image analysis measurements and the parameters of the kinetic model were identified. When the glucose feed rate to the production culture is switched between a high and a low value, the model can successfully predict the dynamic changes of differentiation and the resulting penicillin production caused by the variations in the nutrient conditions. The use of image analysis to characterize differentiation as a basis for structured modeling of the penicillin fermentation appears to be very powerful, and the method has great potential for use in process simulation and control of antibiotic fermentations. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: spore ; spore viability ; germination ; morphology ; image analysis ; Penicillium chrysogenum ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Fungal spores are used in the laboratory for culture maintenance and at laboratory and other scales as inocula for fermentations. The spore swelling and germination processes constitute a major part of the lag phase, and the subsequent culture morphology and productivity can be greatly influenced by the initial concentration and condition of the spores. An image analysis method has been developed for assessing the viability and the germination characteristics of fungal spores in submerged cultures. Structural variations during germination, i.e., swelling, germ tube formation, and germ tube elongation, are measured in terms of distributions of spore volumes and of germ tube lengths and volumes. These measurements are fully automatic and give a very rapid assessment of spore viability. This image analysis method might be used as a tool in culture maintenance and for determining the quality of inocula for fungal fermentations. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6784
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary It has been shown that a paraformaldehyde/glutaraldehyde/phosphate buffer saline fixative can be used to preserve vacuolation ofPenicillium chrysogenum hyphae from submerged cultures for later image analysis characterisation. After fixing, the proportion of the hyphase as vacuoles and empty cells (in several samples from different fermentations with different initial percentage vacuolations) did not change significantly over about 70h, and there were only minor changes towards smaller vacuoles in the vacuolation size distributions over the same period. This fixation method will permit the storage of vacuolated hyphae, for later analysis either for physiological studies or for dynamic studies of the links between hyphal vacuolation and fragmentation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Latex particles ; Aggregates ; Fractal dimensions ; Image analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The fractal nature of latex particles and their aggregates was characterised by image analysis in terms of fractal dimensions. The one- and two-dimensional fractal dimensions, D 1 and D 2, were estimated for polystyrene latex aggregates formed by flocculation in citric acid/phosphate buffer solutions. The dimensional analysis method was used, which is based on power law correlations between aggregate perimeter, projected area and maximum length. These aggregate characteristics were measured by image analysis. A two-slopes method using cumulative size distributions of aggregate length and solid volume has been developed to determine the three-dimensional fractal dimension (D 3) for the latex aggregates. The fractal dimensions D 1, D 2 and D 3 measured for single latex particles in distilled water agreed well with D 1 = 1, D 2 = 2 and D 3 = 3 expected for Euclidean spherical objects. For the aggregates, the fractal dimension D 2 of about 1.67 ± 0.04 (±standard deviation) was comparable to the fractal dimension D 3 of approximately 1.72 ± 0.13 (±standard deviation), taking the standard deviations into account. The measured three-dimensional fractal dimension for latex aggregates is within the fractal dimension range 1.6–2.2 expected for aggregates formed through a cluster-cluster mechanism, and is close to the D 3 value of about 1.8 indicated for cluster formation via diffusion-limited colloidal aggregation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: mycelial morphology ; Penicillium chrysogenum ; image analysis ; impeller geometry ; energy dissipation rate ; circulation frequency ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of the agitation conditions on the morphology of Penicillium chrysogenum (freely dispersed and aggregated forms) was examined using radial (Rushton turbines and paddles), axial (pitched blades, propeller, and Prochem Maxflow T), and counterflow impellers (Intermig). Culture broth was taken from a continuous fermentation at steady state and was agitated for 30 min in an ungassed vessel of 1.4-L working volume. The power inputs per unit volume of liquid in the tank, P/VL, ranged from 0.6 to 6 kW/m3. Image analysis was used to measure mycelial morphology. To characterize the intensity of the damage caused by different impellers, the mean total hyphal length (freely dispersed form) and the mean projected area (all dispersed types, i.e., also including aggregates) were used. [In this study, breakage of aggregates was taken into account quantitatively for the first time.]At 1.4-L scale and a given P/VL, changes in the morphology depended significantly on the impeller geometry. However, the morphological data (obtained with different geometries and various P/VL) could be correlated on the basis of equal tip speed and two other, less simple, mixing parameters. One is based on the specific energy dissipation rate in the impeller region, which is simply related to P/VL and particular impeller geometrical parameters. The other which is developed in this study is based on a combination of the specific energy dissipation rate in the impeller swept volume and the frequency of mycelial circulation through that volume. For convenience, the function arising from this concept is called the “energy dissipation/circulation” function.To test the broader validity of these correlations, scale-up experiments were carried out in mixing tanks of 1.4, 20, and 180 L using a Rushton turbine and broth from a fed-batch fermentation. The energy dissipation/circulation function was a reasonable correlating parameter for hyphal damage over this range of scales, whereas tip speed, P/VL, and specific energy dissipation rate in the impeller region were poor. Two forms of the energy dissipation/circulation function were considered, one of which additionally allowed for the numbers of vortices behind the blades of each impeller type. Although both forms were successful at correlating the data for the standard impeller designs considered here, there was preliminary evidence that allowing for the vortices would be valuable. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...