energy dissipation rate
Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
The influence of the agitation conditions on the morphology of Penicillium chrysogenum (freely dispersed and aggregated forms) was examined using radial (Rushton turbines and paddles), axial (pitched blades, propeller, and Prochem Maxflow T), and counterflow impellers (Intermig). Culture broth was taken from a continuous fermentation at steady state and was agitated for 30 min in an ungassed vessel of 1.4-L working volume. The power inputs per unit volume of liquid in the tank, P/VL, ranged from 0.6 to 6 kW/m3. Image analysis was used to measure mycelial morphology. To characterize the intensity of the damage caused by different impellers, the mean total hyphal length (freely dispersed form) and the mean projected area (all dispersed types, i.e., also including aggregates) were used. [In this study, breakage of aggregates was taken into account quantitatively for the first time.]At 1.4-L scale and a given P/VL, changes in the morphology depended significantly on the impeller geometry. However, the morphological data (obtained with different geometries and various P/VL) could be correlated on the basis of equal tip speed and two other, less simple, mixing parameters. One is based on the specific energy dissipation rate in the impeller region, which is simply related to P/VL and particular impeller geometrical parameters. The other which is developed in this study is based on a combination of the specific energy dissipation rate in the impeller swept volume and the frequency of mycelial circulation through that volume. For convenience, the function arising from this concept is called the “energy dissipation/circulation” function.To test the broader validity of these correlations, scale-up experiments were carried out in mixing tanks of 1.4, 20, and 180 L using a Rushton turbine and broth from a fed-batch fermentation. The energy dissipation/circulation function was a reasonable correlating parameter for hyphal damage over this range of scales, whereas tip speed, P/VL, and specific energy dissipation rate in the impeller region were poor. Two forms of the energy dissipation/circulation function were considered, one of which additionally allowed for the numbers of vortices behind the blades of each impeller type. Although both forms were successful at correlating the data for the standard impeller designs considered here, there was preliminary evidence that allowing for the vortices would be valuable. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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