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  • 1
    Keywords: IN-VIVO ; intraepithelial neoplasia ; MOUSE MODEL ; K-RAS ; DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMA ; ADULT MICE ; MAST-CELLS ; GENOME-WIDE ; RAS ONCOGENES ; ONCOGENIC KRAS
    Abstract: Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have dramatically improved our understanding of tumor evolution and therapeutic resistance. However, sequential genetic manipulation of gene expression and targeting of the host is almost impossible using conventional Cre-loxP-based models. We have developed an inducible dual-recombinase system by combining flippase-FRT (Flp-FRT) and Cre-loxP recombination technologies to improve GEMMs of pancreatic cancer. This enables investigation of multistep carcinogenesis, genetic manipulation of tumor subpopulations (such as cancer stem cells), selective targeting of the tumor microenvironment and genetic validation of therapeutic targets in autochthonous tumors on a genome-wide scale. As a proof of concept, we performed tumor cell-autonomous and nonautonomous targeting, recapitulated hallmarks of human multistep carcinogenesis, validated genetic therapy by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase inactivation as well as cancer cell depletion and show that mast cells in the tumor microenvironment, which had been thought to be key oncogenic players, are dispensable for tumor formation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25326799
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are the first-line therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal tumors without RAS mutations. However, EGFR inhibitors are ineffective in these patients, and tumor level of EGFR does not associate with response to therapy. We screened human colorectal tumors for EGFR-positive myeloid cells and investigated their association with patient outcome. We also performed studies in mice to evaluate how EGFR expression in tumor cells and myeloid cells contributes to development of colitis-associated cancer and ApcMin-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses of 116 colorectal tumor biopsies to determine levels of EGFR in tumor and stroma; we also collected information on tumor stage and patient features and outcomes. We used the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests to correlate tumor levels of EGFR with tumor stage, and the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate patients' median survival time. We performed experiments in mice lacking EGFR in intestinal epithelial cells (Villin-Cre; Egfrf/f and Villin-CreERT2; Egfrf/f mice) or myeloid cells (LysM-Cre; Egfrf/f mice) on a mixed background. These mice were bred with ApcMin/+ mice; colitis-associated cancer and colitis were induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), with or without azoxymethane (AOM), respectively. Villin-CreERT2 was activated in developed tumors by administration of tamoxifen to mice. Littermates that expressed full-length EGFR were used as controls. Intestinal tissues were collected; severity of colitis, numbers and size of tumors, and intestinal barrier integrity were assessed by histologic, immunohistochemical, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry analyses. RESULTS: We detected EGFR in myeloid cells in the stroma of human colorectal tumors; myeloid cell expression of EGFR associated with tumor metastasis and shorter patient survival time. Mice with deletion of EGFR from myeloid cells formed significantly fewer and smaller tumors than the respective EGFR-expressing controls in an ApcMin/+ background as well as after administration of AOM and DSS. Deletion of EGFR from intestinal epithelial cells did not affect tumor growth. Furthermore, tamoxifen-induced deletion of EGFR from epithelial cells of established intestinal tumors in mice given AOM and DSS did not reduce tumor size. EGFR signaling in myeloid cells promoted activation of STAT3 and expression of survivin in intestinal tumor cells. Mice with deletion of EGFR from myeloid cells developed more severe colitis after DSS administration, characterized by increased intestinal inflammation and intestinal barrier disruption, than control mice or mice with deletion of EGFR from intestinal epithelial cells. EGFR-deficient myeloid cells in the colon of DSS-treated LysM-Cre; Egfrf/f mice had reduced expression of interleukin 6 (IL6), and epithelial STAT3 activation was reduced compared with controls. Administration of recombinant IL6 to LysM-Cre; Egfrf/f mice given DSS protected them from weight loss and restored epithelial proliferation and STAT3 activation, compared with administration of DSS alone to these mice. CONCLUSIONS: Increased expression of EGFR in myeloid cells from the colorectal tumor stroma associates with tumor progression and reduced survival time of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Deletion of EGFR from myeloid cells, but not intestinal epithelial cells, protects mice from colitis-induced intestinal cancer and ApcMin-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis. Myeloid cell expression of EGFR increases activation of STAT3 and expression of survivin in intestinal epithelial cells and expression of IL6 in colon tissues. These findings indicate that expression of EGFR by myeloid cells of the colorectal tumor stroma, rather than the cancer cells themselves, contributes to tumor development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28400195
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7462
    Keywords: natural-language processing ; natural-language discourse ; semantics ; intention ; coherence ; context ; OSCON
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract One of the most difficult problems within the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is that of processing language by computer, or natural-language processing. A major problem in natural-language processing is to build theories and models of how individual utterances cling together into a coherent discourse. The problem is important because, to properly understand natural language, a computer should have some sense of what it means for a discourse to be coherent and rational. Theories, models and implementations of natural-language processing argue for a measure of coherence based on three themes: meaning, structure, and intention. Most approaches stress one theme over all the others. Their future lies in the integration of components of all approaches. A theory of intention analysis solves, in part, the problem of natural-language dialogue processing. A central principle of the theory is that coherence of natural-language dialogue can be modelled by analysing sequences of intention. The theory of intention analysis has been incorporated within a computational model, called Operating System CONsultant (OSCON), implemented in Quintus Prolog, which understands, and answers in English, English questions about computer operating systems. Theories and implementations of discourse processing will not only enable people to communicate better with computers, but also enable computers to better communicate with people.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 20 (1976), S. 2225-2228 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The preparation of some novel quaternary salts of bis(chloromethyl) ether are described. The salts derived from trimethylamine are stable in alkali, whereas the ones containing pyridinium groups are unstable in alkali, and are formaldehyde donors and gelatin hardeners. A possible mechanism for the decomposition reaction is proposed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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