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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Blood lymphocytes from 100 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-bladder) were studied for their cytotoxicity in vitro against a panel of allogeneic tissue culture cell lines. Of the TCC-bladder patients, 45 were untreated for their disease, while 55 had been treated with local radiotherapy up to 12 years before testing. Control lymphocytes were obtained from (1) 45 untreated, age- and sex-matched patients with other neoplastic diseases, mainly urogenital cancers; (2) 19 patients with acute cystitis; and (3) 45 healthy donors. Lymphocytes from individual donors within all five groups were frequently cytotoxic to any one of the target cells. However, the lymphocytes from each of the two TCC-bladder groups were markedly more cytotoxic to two different bladder tumor targets than to control targets derived from normal bladder epithelium, from colon carcinoma, or from malignant melanoma. Similar comparisons made within each of the three control donor groups did not show this. The results indicate that the two bladder tumor targets were not more susceptible to lymphocyte-mediated lysis than the control targets. The mean cytotoxicity displayed by the lymphocytes from both TCC-bladder groups to the bladder tumor targets was significantly higher than that of the cancer control group and that of the healthy donors. No such elevation was seen when the cancer control group or the cystitis patients were compared with healthy donors. Although untreated TCC-patients with a larger tumor burden (stages T3–T4) appeared to be slightly less cytotoxic to all target cells than those with a smaller tumor burden (T1–T2), these differences were not statistically significant. On the other hand, among the treated TCC-patients, in the main those tested more than 1 year and up to 5 years after therapy exhibited a significantly elevated mean cytotoxicity to the bladder tumor targets. Within all five donor groups, the overall cytotoxicity to the bladder tumor targets and the normal bladder targets showed a statistically highly significant correlation. However, while there was no correlation for the untreated TCC-bladder patients and the clinical controls between cytotoxicity to the bladder tumor targets on one hand and non-bladder targets on the other, the cytotoxicity to the bladder tumor targets of the treated TCC-bladder patients was also correlated with that to the colon carcinoma and the melanoma targets. The results indicate that cytotoxicity in both TCC patients and controls reflects recognition by the lymphocytes of a variety of antigens, shared to different degrees by different groups of target cells. Furthermore, in TCC-bladder patients there is a superimposed cytotoxicity, which is related to their disease and which probably reflects reactions against one or several tumor-associated antigens.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The study aimed to determine whether inhalation of subclinical allergen doses leads to a shift in the balance between T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cells in asthmatic patients. Elevated IgE requires allergen-specific T cells producing cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4 or 1L-13. Interferon-gamma (IFN-y) produced by Till cells counteracts the effects of IL-4. In nature, allergic persons are often exposed to low levels of allergen, leading to hyperreactivity, but not to acute allergic reactions. In this study, nine allergic persons inhaled low doses of allergen or placebo in a double-blind manner over seven consecutive weekdays. During the study, the bronchial responsiveness to histamine challenge increased, but no subject exhibited asthmatic symptoms. Blood was drawn on days 0,1, 4, and 9, and the number of IL-4– and IFN-γ-producing cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay after in vitro stimulation with a low-dose phytohemagglutinin (PHA) mixed with the relevant allergen or with PHA alone. In three of the four subjects receiving allergen, the IL-4/IFN-y ratio increased during the time of the study. No increase was seen in the placebo group. No increase was seen in serum IgE levels in any of the groups. We conclude that a shift in the balance between Thl and Th2 cells can be detected in subjects exposed to subclinical allergen doses.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: CD40 and CD43 arc two cell-surface glycoproteins that appear to be functionally involved in the growth stimulation of human B cells. Whereas CD40 is structurally similar to the NGF receptor and is present on all resting B cells. CD43 displays no homology to other known proteins and is expressed only on a subpopulation of these cells. To further understand the extra- and intracellular signals regulating these molecules and in which stage of activation they may play a role, we used various activation strategies and studied their expression on tonsillar B cells. As expected, activation of protein kinase C by TPA increased both CD40 and CD43. In contrast, a rise in intracellular Ca2+, e.g. by ionomycin, did not influence the expression of these antigens. However, in the presence of TPA, ionomycin further up-regulated CD43 but not CD40. Anti-IgM behaved similarly to ionomycin suggesting that the effect of this reagent was due primarily to its ability to increase intracellular Ca2+. Of three interleukins(lL-2. IL-4 and IL-6) only IL-4 had a significant effect when used alone in that it up-regulated CD40 but not CD43. However, in Ihe presence of anti-IgM, both IL-2 and IL-4 synergistically up-regulated the two antigens. Complementation of antigen receptor stimulation with TPA or IL-4 increased CD4U during the first 24 h. whereas up-regulation of CD43 did not occur until 24 to 4S h after stimulation. With regard both to up-regulation in response to different stimuli and to kinetics, CD40 expression paralleled that of the early activation antigen CD23, whereas CD43 was induced in parallel with the transferrin receptor (CD71). Taken together, our results suggests that the expression of CD40 and CD43 is regulated by different intracellular signals and that CD40 may be important during early activation, whereas CD43 may have its major function during later stages of B-cell differentiation. These assumptions are in line with the observations that CD4U antibodies can directly activate resting B cells and that CD43 are retained on plasma cells.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Lymphocytes from patients with transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder were transformed by infection with Epstein-Barr virus. To obtain B cells secreting antibodies reactive with TCC cells, the transformed cells were either adhered to irradiated monolayers of cultured allogeneic TCC cells or subcultured at limiting dilution. Supernatants from these cultures were tested in a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against fixed cells, isolated plasma membranes, or lipid antigens or were tested by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Reactions with antigens derived from the serum source were excluded by proper controls. By this approach a majority of the patients tested (7/12) gave rise to cultures producing antibodies recognizing various cellular antigens. The antibody-containing supernatants from these cultures were usually of high titres and the reactive antibodies of IgM isotype. One culture, which had been selected by repeated adherence to TCC cells, produced antibodies reactive with such cells in ADCC. None of the antibodies investigated detected antigens exclusively present on TCC cells.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Dopamine inhibits prolactin release from pituitary cells and seems to affect the release of several other hormones as well. We report here that dopamine may have similar effects on human B lymphoma cells leading to inhibition of production or release of endogenous factors required for cell viability and proliferation. Thus, addition of dopamine to serum-free cultures of Burkitt lymphoma cells (Raji, Namalwa, Daudi and Jijoye) resulted in rapid and extensive cell death while a myeloma cell line, SKO, appeared to be refractory to this treatment. The addition of FCS or supernatant from serum-free cultures of Raji or T24 bladder carcinoma cells could, to a variable degree, counteract the effect of dopamine, suggesting that dopamine acts by inhibiting the production of essential autocrine factors. When two of the hormones known to be under dopamine control, i.e. prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH), were tested, they were able to prevent dopamine-induced cell death if combined with heparin. We further observed that the reducing agent 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), which is known to inhibit the binding of TSH to its receptor, displayed similar effects to those of dopamine and was strongly inhibitory for Burkitt lymphoma but not for myeloma cells. As expected from its blocking activity at the receptor level, the effect of 2-ME could not be reversed by adding exogenous factors. Contrary to its effect on B lymphoma cells, 2-ME is essential for growth of the murine T-cell lymphoma line CTLL. However, we show here that dopamine can fully compensate for 2-ME, suggesting that TSH or another factor under dopamine control is intimately involved in the regulation of T-cell growth. This study lends further support to the notion of an active interplay between the neuroendocrine and immune systems and emphasizes PRL and TSH as important regulators of lymphoid cell function. It also shows that these hormones may contribute to the autonomous growth pattern of B lymphoma cells and suggests a potential role for dopamine in the treatment of B-cell tumours.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT) is effective for treatment of IgE-mediated diseases; however, the mechanisms of action still remain unclear. Earlier, we showed that IL-4 and IL-13 are produced in response to specific allergens. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these cytokine responses were affected by allergen SIT, and, furthermore, to evaluate the effect of SIT on allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 levels. Methods: Blood samples from pollen-sensitized individuals were collected before the pollen season (before treatment) and during the pollen season (after SIT or placebo treatment). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were activated in vitro with allergens and the numbers of IL-4-, IL-13-, IL-10-, and IFN-γ-producing cells were determined by ELISPOT. Serum levels of allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 were measured by RAST and ELISA, respectively. Results: The numbers of IL-4- and IL-13-producing cells were shown to be increased in the placebo group during the pollen season, an increment which was absent in patients receiving allergen SIT. We found an increase in allergen-specific IgG4 in the SIT-treated individuals, but not in the placebo group. Both groups displayed elevated specific IgE levels during the pollen season. Conclusions: Taken together, our data show a downregulation of IL-4- and IL-13-producing cells in peripheral blood after SIT, suggesting induction of nonresponsiveness/tolerance or a redistribution of these cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SIT acts on antibody production by increasing the specific IgG4 levels.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background and Objective CD4+ T cells can be divided into two major subsets. T helper (TH)1 and TH2 cells. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is produced by TH2 cells and induces switching of immunoglobulin (Ig) M/lgG to IgE. Interferon-γ (IFNγ) produced by TH1 cells counteracts the IgE-promoting effects of IL-4. In this study we wanted to investigate whether the number of IL4-producing cells could be a direct measurement of allergen exposure in vitro, and whether this was correlated to the elevated serum IgE-levels seen in atopic persons.Methods We compared the number of IL-4- and IFNγ-producing cells using an enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) in response to allergens from birch and cat in peripheral mononuclear cells from atopic and healthy individuals.Results In the two sensitized groups there was an increase in the number of lL-4producing cells in response to the specific allergen which was not seen in the healthy group (1/20000 cells and 1/200 000 cells, respectively, P 〈 0.001 for birch). In criss-cross experiments where birch-sensitized individuals were stimulated with cat allergen, no lL-4-producing cells were seen, indicating a high degree of specificity. In individual subjects, the elevated numbers of IL-4-producing cells were significantly correlated with their allergen-specific serum IgE levels. When allergen was combined with a suboptimal dose of PHA, there was a synergistic increase in the number of allergen-induced IL-4-producing cells (1/4000 cells) in the atopic donors, which was not seen with the number of IFNγ-producing cells.Conclusions Allergen-specific IL-4 producing cells in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture can be detected by ELISPOT and the response can synergistically be enhanced by suboptimal concentrations of PHA.
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