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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Heart Rate ; Rectal Temperature ; Muscular Work ; Recovery ; Hot Environment ; Fréquence cardiaque ; Température rectale ; Exercice musculaire ; Récupération ; Ambiance chaude
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Dans le but d'analyser les facteurs qui déterminent les variations lentes de fréquence cardiaque au cours et après l'exercice musculaire, nous avons étudié chez 4 sujets les évolutions respectives de la fréquence cardiaque, de la température rectale, de la température cutanée moyenne, des lactates, des pyruvates et du glucose sanguin au cours d'exercices musculaires de puissances comprises entre 75 et 135 watt, effectués soit dans une ambiance neutre soit dans une ambiance chaude. Après les 5 premières min de travail, nous avons rarement observé une période d'état stable de la fréquence cardiaque: la fréquence cardiaque continue d'augmenter lentement jusqu'à la fin de la période d'exercice musculaire. Après les 5 premières min des périodes de récupération, la fréquence cardiaque continue de décroître lentement et tend vers son niveau initial de repos. L'analyse des évolutions simultanées de la fréquence cardiaque et des autres variables prises en compte nous a permis de conclure à un déterminisme thermique des variations lentes de fréquence cardiaque. Mises à part les á premières min des phases d'exercice musculaire et des phases de récupération, la fréquence cardiaque à un instant donné est fonction de la puissance mécanique développée, du niveau de température rectale atteint et de la différence entre la température rectale et la température cutanée moyenne. Une seule et même équation de prédiction permet de rendre compte du niveau de fréquence cardiaque atteint au repos ou au travail, dans une ambiance neutre ou chaude.
    Notes: Summary In order to analyse the factors controlling the slow heart rate variations during and after muscular exercise, the simultaneous evolutions of heart rate, rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, blood lactate, pyruvate and glucose have been investigated on 4 subjects, during muscular exercises at various work loads (between 75 and 135 Watt) in two thermal conditions (neutral and hot). After the first 5 min of work, a steady-state period of heart rate was only rarely observed: the heart rate continued to increase slowly during the subsequent period of bicycling. After the first 5 mm of recovery and of fast heart rate deceleration, the heart rate continued to decrease slowly to his initial rest level. The analysis of the simultaneous evolution of the heart rate and of the other variables taken into account, showed a thermal control of these slow variations of the heart rate. Except for the first 5 min of the exercise and recovery periods, the instantaneous heart rate is an additive function of the mechanical work load, of the rectal temperature level and of the difference between rectal and mean skin temperature. One single theoretical equation allows the prediction of the levels of heart rate at rest or at work, in a neutral as well as in a hot environment.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Olfactory placode ; Cell migration ; Neuronspecific enolase ; Leetin ; LHRH ; Olfactory marker protein ; Development ; Rat (Wistar, SPF)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Immunocytochemical and histochemical methods have been used to describe the neuronal population migrating from the rat olfactory placode and to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of this neuronal migration during development. Several neuronal markers, such as binding to the lectin Ulex europaeus (UEA I) and the presence of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), olfactory marker protein (OMP), and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), have been tested in order to determine whether migrating neurons originate from both the medial and the lateral parts of the placode and whether they all express LHRH. Our data show that a large population of differentiated migrating neurons can be identified with an antibody against NSE from the 14th day of gestation and with UEA I one day later. Migrating neurons are closely associated with both the vomeronasal axon fascicles emerging from the medial pit and the olfactory axons originating from the lateral pit. However, the neuron migration from the lateral pit appears to be more discrete than that from the medial pit. No LHRH immunoreactivity has been detected among neurons migrating from the lateral pit. Some neurons accompanying the olfactory axon fascicles exhibit a high level of maturation as shown by their OMP-positivity. Numerous neurons positive for both NSE and UEA I have also been observed within the presumptive olfactory nerve layer in early embryonic stages.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Olfactory placode – Cell migration – Neuron-specific enolase – Lectin – LHRH – Olfactory marker protein – Development – Rat (Wistar, SPF)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Immunocytochemical and histochemical methods have been used to describe the neuronal population migrating from the rat olfactory placode and to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of this neuronal migration during development. Several neuronal markers, such as binding to the lectin Ulex europaeus (UEA I) and the presence of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), olfactory marker protein (OMP), and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), have been tested in order to determine whether migrating neurons originate from both the medial and the lateral parts of the placode and whether they all express LHRH. Our data show that a large population of differentiated migrating neurons can be identified with an antibody against NSE from the 14th day of gestation and with UEA I one day later. Migrating neurons are closely associated with both the vomeronasal axon fascicles emerging from the medial pit and the olfactory axons originating from the lateral pit. However, the neuron migration from the lateral pit appears to be more discrete than that from the medial pit. No LHRH immunoreactivity has been detected among neurons migrating from the lateral pit. Some neurons accompanying the olfactory axon fascicles exhibit a high level of maturation as shown by their OMP-positivity. Numerous neurons positive for both NSE and UEA I have also been observed within the presumptive olfactory nerve layer in early embryonic stages.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Biology of the Cell 76 (1992), S. 222 
    ISSN: 0248-4900
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Apoptosis ; Programmed cell death ; Olfactory system ; Embryogenesis ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It has been previously shown that the embryonic olfactory nerve contains, in addition to glial ensheathing cells, a large population of differentiated neurons that migrate from the developing olfactory epithelium, in close association with the olfactory axon fascicles. The purpose of our study was to verify the hypothesis according to which a process of physiological cell death might be involved in the progressive disappearance of these migrating neurons that has been reported during late embryonic stages in several immunocytochemical studies. To do so, we have investigated the development of the olfactory nerve layer in rat embryos by using light and electron microscopy, with special reference to the presence of cell death processes within this structure. We have also applied the histochemical TUNEL method allowing in situ visualization of cells degenerating by apoptosis. In order to determine if neurons were present among dying cells, a procedure of double-labeling was performed by combining the DNA-specific bisbenzimide with two neuronal markers, the protein B-50/GAP-43 and the lectin Ulex europaeus I. Results brought out the precise temporal and spatial patterns of programmed cell death accompanying the morphogenesis of the olfactory nerve layer. A cell death process was observed within the olfactory nerve layer from its onset at embryonic day 13 (E13). While only few pycnotic cells were observed in E13 and E14 embryos, their number increased from E15 to reach a maximum at E16 and then diminished. Few dying cells were also observed along the olfactory axon fascicles when they penetrated the olfactory nerve layer. Degenerating cells appeared strongly TUNEL-labeled and exhibited morphological features of cell death by apoptosis. Double-labeling experiments revealed that some of the apoptotic cells were neurons. These observations indicate that apoptosis may account for the progressive decrease in the number of migrating neurons present within the embryonic olfactory nerve layer. Otherwise, a zone of massive cell death by apoptosis was observed at E14 within the nasal mesenchyme located ventrally and caudally to the olfactory nerve layer. Double-labeling experiments showed that apoptotic cells present within this zone were not neurons. Our findings strongly suggest that apoptotic cell death of migrating neurons may allow the elimination of non-functional cells whereas that of mesenchymal cells may facilitate outgrowth of the newly formed olfactory axon fascicles by pathway formation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The major impediments to axonal regeneration in the central nervous system are growth-inhibitory proteins present in the myelin sheath, and Nogo-A is one of the most potent inhibitors synthesized by oligodendrocytes. However, neuronal expression of Nogo-A during development suggests that it may have an additional role. The spatio-temporal regulation of both Nogo-A mRNA and protein expression was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in the developing rat olfactory system. During embryonic and postnatal development (from E13 to P6), Nogo-A mRNA and protein were strongly expressed by differentiating neurons in the olfactory epithelium and in the olfactory bulb. From the second postnatal week, a progressive down-regulation of both Nogo-A mRNA and protein occurred, such that only a weak expression persisted in the adult olfactory system. Using double-immunostainings in the adult olfactory epithelium, we determined that Nogo-A was preferentially expressed by immature olfactory receptor neurons extending axonal processes toward the olfactory bulb. At all developmental stages, Nogo-A protein was preferentially targeted in olfactory axons emerging from the olfactory epithelium. Using an in vitro model of olfactory axon growth, we demonstrated that, in addition to its presence along the entire axon length, Nogo-A accumulated in axonal growth cone and at axonal branching points, with a distribution similar to that of microtubule-associated proteins. Moreover, Nogo-A was transiently expressed in dendritic processes in the postnatal olfactory bulb. Together, our data suggest that, in non-pathological conditions, Nogo-A may be involved in the processes of axonal growth and dendritic modeling through the regulation of microtubule dynamics.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SCG10 is a membrane-associated, microtubule-destabilizing protein of neuronal growth cones. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we show that in the developing cortex of mice, SCG10 is specifically localized to the trans face Golgi complex and apparently associated with vesicular structures in putative growth cones. Consistent with this, subcellular fractionation of rat forebrain extracts demonstrates that the protein is enriched in the fractions containing the Golgi apparatus and growth cone particles. In isolated growth cone particles, SCG10 was found to be particularly concentrated in the growth cone vesicle fraction. To evaluate the molecular determinants of the specific targeting of SCG10 to growth cones, we have transfected PC12 cells and primary neurons in culture with mutant and fusion cDNA constructs. Deletion of the amino-terminal domain or mutations within this domain that prevented palmitoylation at cysteines 22 and 24 abolished Golgi localization as well as growth cone targeting, suggesting that palmitoylation of the amino-terminal domain is a necessary signal for Golgi sorting and possibly transport of SCG10 to growth cones. Fusion proteins consisting of the amino-terminal domain of SCG10 and the cytosolic proteins stathmin or glutathione-S-transferase colocalized with a Golgi marker, α-mannosidase II, and accumulated in growth cones of both axons and dendrites. These results reveal a novel axonal/dendritic growth cone targeting sequence that involves palmitoylation.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 30 (1918), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of midazolam-ketamine association to control pain induced by diagnostic procedures in paediatric oncology patients. 226 procedures were carried out in 92 patients aged three days to 18 years. Drugs were given i.v. by an anaesthesiologist. Midazolam dose was 25 μg??kg−1 and ketamine 0.5 to 2 mg??kg−1, depending on number and invasiveness of procedures. The mean dose of ketamine was 1 mg??kg−1. Mean duration of sedation was ten min. No complication was observed and analgesia was considered satisfactory in 89 out of 92 patients. These results indicate that midazolam-ketamine is a safe and effective association in pain management for paediatric oncology patients and efficiently induces brief unconscious sedation with analgesia.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Nitrogen starvation is generally assumed to be encountered by biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens at the beginning of their infection cycle. We tested whether nitrogen starvation constitutes a cue regulating genes that are required for pathogenicity of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a fungal pathogen of common bean. The clnr1 (C. lindemuthianumnitrogen regulator 1) gene, the areA/nit-2 orthologue of C. lindemuthianum, was isolated. The predicted CLNR1 protein exhibits high amino acid sequence similarities with the AREA and NIT2 global fungal nitrogen regulators. Targeted clnr1– mutants are unable to use a wide array of nitrogen sources, indicating that clnr1 is the C. lindemuthianum major nitrogen regulatory gene. The clnr1– mutants are non-pathogenic, although few anthracnose lesions seldom occur on whole plantlets. Surprisingly, cytological analysis reveals that the clnr1– mutants are not disturbed from the penetration stage until the end of the biotrophic phase, but that they are impaired during the setting up of the necrotrophic phase. Thus, through CLNR1, nitrogen starvation constitutes a cue for the regulation of genes that are compulsory for this stage of the C. lindemuthianum infection process. Additionally, clnr1– mutants complemented with the Aspergillus nidulans areA gene are fully pathogenic, indicating that areA is able to activate the C. lindemuthianum suited genes, normally under the control of clnr1.
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