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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Subjects who received EEG alpha feedback recorded from two homologous scalp areas (central-temporal) were trained to have ON-OFF control over the left and right sides. The partial success in demonstrating localized control suggests that subjects may be trained for very specific control. Localized training may be used to partition the subjective, conscious and behavioral experiences associated with selected EEG patterns and to develop an independent subjective physiological language. Applications to medicine and altered states of consciousness are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-one normal humans attempted to control the facilitation and inhibition of their EEG occipital alpha rhythm. They received auditory feedback which informed them whether or not alpha occurred. Most subjects learned to inhibit alpha, only four learned to facilitate it. Further training did not bring improved control of alpha. The results are presented to illustrate problems of method and interpretation which include the diversity of subjective attempts at control; day-to-day variability of the response; the control for alpha increase caused by habituation; and the feedback technique as an operant conditioning method. Descriptors: Autoregulation, alpha rhythm, feedback EEG, alpha training.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Summary Experiments with feedback stimulation triggered from the subject's electroencephalogram result in changing the sequential time series of intervals of occipital alpha and intervals of little or no alpha EEG activity. The rate of recurrence of alpha and no-alpha EEG can be changed by regulating the external feedback stimuli or by asking the subject to change his internal state. Four different paradigms were investigated and the results interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that oculomotor functions regulate the occurrence and nonoccurrence of alpha.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Psychophysiology 8 (1971), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The parietal-occipital EEG was recorded while subjects performed various fixation, accommodation, and tracking maneuvers with stationary and moving targets. For some experiments the target was continuously in view and independent of the EEG; in others, a feedback path connected the occurrence of parietal-occipital alpha with the visibility of the target. The results show that alpha attenuation or blocking is not due to “visual attention'” but to processes of fixation, lens accommodation, and pursuit tracking. Saccadic movements were not reliably linked to alpha or alpha “blocking.'” The utility of feedback methods for testing the hypotheses that visual control processes are linked to the parietal-occipital alpha rhythms was demonstrated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Keywords: respiration ; anxiety ; symptom prescription ; hyperventilation ; biofeedback ; breathing exhalation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study investigates the effects of partial exhalation to feelings of anxiety. Thirty five volunteer subjects (14 male, 21 female, mean age 40.6) were first trained in slow diaphragmatic breathing (SDB). Then subjects rated their anxiety levels on a scale from 1 (none) to 5 (extreme) in sequential conditions of SDB, 70% subjective exhalation, and SDB. During the 70% subjective exhalation phase, subjects were instructed to breathe and limit their exhalation to 70% of the inhaled volume during each consecutive breath. The 70% subjective condition significantly (P〈.0005) increased subjects' anxiety levels as compared to the initial SDB baseline, while a return to SDB significantly reduced the anxiety levels. The 70% approach appears useful in demonstrating to the client that possible changes in breathing patterns can affect anxiety.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Keywords: temperature training ; biofeedback ; coaching strategies ; methodology ; attention ; arousal ; clinical success
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study investigates common successful strategies to increase peripheral temperature with biofeedback. Eighteen BCIA-certified therapists (average years of practice, 7.5) were interviewed by telephone for 30 to 45 minutes regarding successful peripheral warming strategies. The practitioners reported using multiple teaching strategies, either concurrently or sequentially. These responses were organized into an interrelated four-category model that consists of the following: (1) Attentional Category — shifting from active to passive attention; (2) General Arousal Category — shifting from hyper- to hypoarousal; (3) Proprioceptive/Kinesthetic Awareness Category — shifting from decreased to increased body awareness; (4) Self-Image/Self-Esteem Category — shifting from negative to positive self-image/self-esteem. These four categories and their corresponding techniques can be used to facilitate peripheral warming.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Keywords: diaphragmatic breathing ; clothing ; inhalation volume ; relaxation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Diaphragmatic breathing is included as an important component of relaxation training protocols. In the present study, we report on the effectiveness of a simple behavioral technique to illustrate that choices of tight, restraining clothing significantly affect the inhalation volume of the breathing pattern. This study investigates the use of the incentive inspirometer to observe the effects of tight versus loose clothing on inhalation volume with 17 volunteer subjects. All had been trained in the use of the incentive inspirometer and slow diaphragmatic breathing (SDB) techniques. Inhalation volumes in the studies were measured with a 4000-ml incentive inspirometer and were recorded for one or two sequential breaths using SDB before and after loosening restrictive clothing. Loosening the subjects' clothing significantly increased inhalation volume. The results indicate that tight clothing significantly interferes with diaphragmatic breathing. We suggest that the demonstration of the effect of tight versus loose clothing can increase the clinician's awareness of the effects of clothing on breathing patterns. The technique also facilitates the acquisition of diaphragmatic breathing skills, and may raise the client's awareness that choices such as clothing can directly affect physiology.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Keywords: asthma ; diaphragmatic breathing ; respiration ; EMG ; biofeedback ; follow-up
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study reports on the follow-up data of an integrated group program to reduce asthmatic symptoms. The 16 sessions included a comprehensive multibehavioral/desensitization retraining program and utilized EMG/Incentive inspirometer feedback to encourage slow diaphragmatic breathing in all situations. 17 out of 21 volunteers participated in the 15-month follow-up study. At the follow-up all subjects significantly reduced their EMG tension levels while simultaneously increasing their inhalation volumes. Subjects reported reductions in their asthma symptoms, medication use, emergency room visits, and breathless episodes.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Many common devices can be used as biofeedback devices. The feedback use of the bathroom scale in rehabilitation medicine(physical therapy) has been explored with stroke patients. These patients used two scales, one under each foot, to relearn their sense of weight distribution. In addition, the scale was used to teach patients to shift their weight distribution from their knees to their hands as they learned to crawl, and from their feet to their buttocks and the chair as they learned to sit down.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Keywords: breathing ; experimenter effect ; pacing ; inhalation volume ; self-experience
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study explored how the clinicians'/experimenters' breath patterns affected subjects' inhalation volume. 20 volunteer subjects inhaled 20 sequential breaths (10 normal and 10 paced) with their eyes closed. During the paced exhalation, the experimenter audibly exhaled in phase with the subjects' exhalation. The subjects's inhalation volumes significantly increased during the paced as compared to the initial normal breathing phase, F(1,19)=8.82, p〈.01, repeated measures ANOVA. These findings confirm that the clinician's breathing style directly affects the client's breath pattern.
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