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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Fresh sheep erythrocytes are resistant to lysis by horse serum but gradually became susceptible to this source of complement after storage (ageing) in the blood at 4°C, This occurs faster when the fresh cells are stored in isotonic buffer. The supernatant of the buffer/red cell suspension stored at 4°C for 10–15 days restrict lysis by horse serum when incubated back at 37°C or 43°C with the ‘aged’ sheep cells or fresh guinea pig red cells. In assays using fresh guinea pig erythrocytes this effect is decreased by reincubation of the cells in buffer, and is specific to horse serum when compared to human serum.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The in vitro production of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 by blood mononuclear cells in response to whole Mycobacterium leprae and polyclonal stimulii of 23 individuals, representing a variety of conditions in relation to exposure/susceptibility to M. leprae, was assayed. In most cases, healthy household contacts of newly diagnosed multibacillary leprosy patients, designated exposed household contacts (EC), showed low-to-undetectable in vitro IFN-γ production in addition to substantial TNF-α production in response to M. leprae. In contrast, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from previously exposed contacts (R) regarded as resistant-to-leprosy released low-to-moderate levels of IFN-γ together with a mixed cytokine profile resembling a T helper (Th)0-type response. TNF-α/IL-10 ratios in response to M. leprae and Concanavalin A were significantly higher in EC than in R contacts suggesting a role for the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio in restraining mycobacteria proliferation and spreading early in infection. The cytokine profiles of leprosy patients were taken as reference points. Post-treatment lepromatous leprosy patients secreted relatively high levels of IL-10 in response to M. leprae, whereas one self-cured tuberculoid leprosy patient produced simultaneously high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α. In addition, the quantitative changes in the cytokines released by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in EC contacts after Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination were investigated. Vaccination induced amplification of IFN-γ production with a concomitant decrease in TNF-α/IL-10 ratios that resembled the cytokine pattern observed in R contacts. IFN-γ production was observed in response to both a cross-reactive antigen (Ag 85) and a M. leprae-specific protein (MMP-I), which attests to a BCG nonspecific stimulation of the immune system, thereby casting these antigens as likely candidates for inclusion in a subunit vaccine against leprosy. Finally, a model for protective × pathologic response to mycobacteria is presented.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The basement membrane of the secretory coil of human eccrine sweat glands was studied by light and electron microscopy. With classical staining methods for the elastic system, elaunin ring fibres were observed in the basement membrane of the secretory coil. The ultrastructural study showed that elaunin fibres are formed by bundles of fibrotubules 10–12 nm in diameter surrounding aggregates of amorphous material. These fibres differ from elastic fibres which are thicker and have an amorphous material more homogeneous and abundant.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The elastic tendons by which the arrector pili muscle is inserted into the hair follicle were studied by light and electron microscopy. From the follicle to the muscle it was observed that these tendons are formed successively by oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibres. In close contact with the smooth muscle cells, elaunin and elastic fibres were observed. The fibres penetrate the spaces between the muscle cells and are clamped by them. An explanation is advanced about the significance of this arrangement in the recovery after muscle contraction.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 117 (2002), S. 1878-1885 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We consider the problem of a thin film of fluid with a columnar mesostructure (i.e., hexagonal phase of a diblock melt) placed between two hard, flat surfaces. The columns form parallel to the surfaces and the thickness of the thin film is slightly greater than the bulk equilibrium spacing of the columns. We determine the stability of the columns to a Helfrich–Hurault instability where the columns take on an undulational mode and determine the elastic constants and critical strain for the instability. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 112 (2000), S. 10011-10016 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A number of recent experiments have allowed direct study of diblock copolymer morphology on patterned surfaces. Here we examine, by computer simulation, the morphology of a diblock thin film in contact with a substrate having large stripes. The diblock aligns parallel to the surface but is frustrated at the point where two stripes join. We show here that at the joint one of the phases is continuous while the other is discontinuous. In the region of the join the lamellae form a kink with a length scale of the same size as the lamellar period. Within the kink the ordering is suppressed. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We consider the problem of a thin smectic film placed on a periodically striped solid surface, with stripe width λ, and with the upper surface free. The striped surface–smectic fluid interfacial energy induces the lamellae to align perpendicularly to the surface. We show that in many cases both the bulk liquid and the free upper surface will undulate to relieve the frustration caused by the stripes. In marked contrast to the traditional Helfrich–Hurault instability we show that this new instability occurs under both extension and compression. As a concrete example we consider a symmetric diblock copolymer thin film melt, with bulk equilibrium AB–BA bilayer spacing L2. When L2<2λ these undulations will be enhanced while for L2>2λ they will be diminished. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 169 (1971), S. 613-625 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In sections of thymus stained with the tannic acid-phosphomolybdic acid-amido black (TPA) technique, the epithelial reticular cells can readily be identified by the well-stained tonofibrils in their cytoplasm. In the cortex, flattened epithelial reticular cells form a continuous layer on the inner surface of the capsule and along the interlobular septa. Within the cortex proper, stellate epithelial reticular cells are widely dispersed as a loose network. In the medulla, two zones, referred to as “outer” and “inner” medulla, are distinguished. The outer medulla, like the cortex, contains epithelial reticular cells, but these are more voluminous, are more richly provided with tonofibrils and form a denser network than in the cortex. In the inner medulla no epithelial reticular cells can be seen but instead connective tissue cells and fibers make up the supporting framework. A layer of flattened epithelial reticular cells demarcates the outer from the inner medulla. This layer of cells also extends along the outer surface of blood capillaries seen in the outer medulla and cortex. Around the larger blood vessels, this layer of epithelial reticular cells is separated from the vessel wall by a connective tissue perivascular space. Hence, the inner medulla is continuous with the perivascular spaces and, like them, is supported by connective tissue. Thus, the epithelial reticular cells constitute the supporting framework of the cortex and outer medulla and separate these regions from the connective tissue of the capsule, interlobular septa, blood vessels and inner medulla.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 156 (1966), S. 215-227 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The “cell web,” a supporting fibrillar component of the cytoplasm was investigated in sections of adult rat kidney stained with the tannic acid-phosphomolybdic acid-amido black (TPA) technique. At the apex of all tubular epithelial cells and immediately below the brush border of microvilli, the cell web formed a thin layer of tightly knit fibrils which inserted on terminal bars, the latter following a straight or sinuous course in circumscribing the cell apices. On the lateral surfaces of all tubular cells, with the exception of those lining the first segment of the proximal convoluted tubule and the whole distal convoluted tubule, some TPA stained fibrils were seen running from the terminal bars toward the base of the cells. Lastly, at the base of all tubular cells, excepting those of the macula densa and the cortical and papillary collecting ducts, some coarse fibrils, oriented circularly around the tubule, were seen close to the basement membrane.Thus, in most tubular epithelial cells, cell web fibrils were found below the apical, lateral and basal cell surfaces, making up a framework for the support of the cytoplasm. Cell Web fibrils were also observed in the parietal and visceral epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule.
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  • 10
    Abstract: The spatiotemporal control of mitotic exit is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis. In budding yeast, the mitotic exit network (MEN) drives cells out of mitosis, whereas the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) blocks MEN activity when the anaphase spindle is mispositioned. How the SPOC operates at a molecular level remains unclear. Here, we report novel insights into how mitotic signalling pathways orchestrate chromosome segregation in time and space. We establish that the key function of the central SPOC kinase, Kin4, is to counterbalance MEN activation by the cdc fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) network in the mother cell compartment. Remarkably, Kin4 becomes dispensable for SPOC function in the absence of FEAR. Cells lacking both FEAR and Kin4 show that FEAR contributes to mitotic exit through regulation of the SPOC component Bfa1 and the MEN kinase Cdc15. Furthermore, we uncover controls that specifically promote mitotic exit in the daughter cell compartment.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28117323
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