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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: The effects of 1 year of intensive strength training on neuromuscular function were studied in elderly people operated for total endoprosthesis (n=30) divided into 3 groups: training pup 1 (TG1, n=11), training pup 2 (TG2, n=10) and control group (CG, n=9). After the operation, TG1 and TG2 trained every second day and the training was controlled by training diaries, and CG performed only conventional exercises by themselves. The overall volume of training in TG2 was 30% greater than in TG1. Neuromuscular function was examined by measuring maximal electromyography (EMG) and maximum voluntary isometric and dynamic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles. The range of motion of the knee joint and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the knee extensor muscles were also measured. After the preoperative tests, the same measurements were repeated 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 weeks postoperatively. After the dramatic decreases in maximal isometric torque and EMG-activity during the first postoperative weeks in all groups, TG2 showed the most remarkable improvement in neuromuscular function. For instance, the maximum isometric extension torque measured at 90° knee angle increased between the 24th and 52nd weeks. The increase in the EMG-activity of the rectus femoris muscle was Significant between the 12th and 24th weeks. The CEA of the knee extensor muscles in TG2 was greater 1 year after the operation compared with the preoperative value. The intra- and extra-articular swelling of the knee joint may have irritated the free nerve endings, leading to reflex inhibition with a concomitant decrease in EMG and strength of the knee extensor muscles. Because TG2 demonstrated the most remarkable improvement in neuromuscular function after the first postoperative weeks, intensive training programs can be successfully used in rehabilitation after a major knee operation, even in elderly people.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Key words Hypobaric hypoxia ; Physical training ; Skeletal muscle ; Muscle fibre type ; Fibre cross-sectional area ; Enzymes of energy metabolism ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Adaptations of skeletal muscle morphology and metabolic enzymes were studied after prolonged training in and exposure to hypobaric (740 –770 mbar) as well as normobaric conditions in rats performing treadmill running training for 10, 21 and 56 days. Animals sacrificed after 91 days served as recovery groups from training and hypobaric exposure for 56 days. The rats were divided into normobaric sedentary (NS) and training (NT) groups and hypobaric sedentary (HS) and training (HT) groups. The weights of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles increased significantly in the 56HS and the 56HT groups compared with the 56NS group, the increase being greatest in the 56HS group. No differences in the mean fibre areas (MFA) of these muscles could be seen, whereas clearly reduced MFAs of type IIA and IIB were observed in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. However, fibre area distribution analyses in the EDL and TA muscles showed a higher proportion of larger fibers in the 56HS and 56HT groups than in the respective normobaric groups. On the contrary, in SOL muscles the proportion of smaller fibers was higher in the hypobaric than in normobaric groups at 56 days. Increased activities of citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase in SOL and TA muscles in the 56HT group indicate an increase in oxidative capacity. It is concluded that exposure to, and training in moderate hypobaric conditions leads to a positive muscle protein balance which is reflected in increased muscle weights. However, the sites of increased protein synthesis and the possible hyperplasia remain to be studied further.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: Collagen ; cardiac muscle ; endurance training ; hypobaric condition ; mRNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxic condition, physical training and their combination on collagen type I, III and IV gene expression in the ventricles and atria of rat heart. Male rats were assigned to four groups: normobaric sedentary (NS) and trained (NT), and hypobaric sedentary (HS) and trained (HT). Exposure to and treadmill running training in hypobaric condition were carried out in a hypobaric chamber (770–740 mbar, 2250–2550 m). Experimental periods were 10, 21 and 56 days; the groups of 91 days served as recovery groups from experimental settings of 56 days. Exposure to hypobaric condition as such and in combination with endurance training for 10 days increased right ventricular weigth-to-body weight ratio (RV/BW) by 26% (p〈0.001) and 23% (p〈0.01), respectively, when compared to 10NS. RV/BW was significantly increased also in 21HT and 56HT. Left ventricular weight-to-body weight ratio was 13% (p〈0.01) and 14% (p〈0.01) higher in 21HT and 56HT, respectively, than in the respective NS. Right ventricular collagen type III mRNA level was 33% (p=0.065) and 38% (p〈0.01) higher in 10HT than in 10NS and 10NT, respectively. Right ventricular collagen type IV mRNA level was 29% (p〈0.001) higher in 10HT than in 10NS. Relatively slight left ventricular hypertrophy was not associated with significant changes in collagen mRNA levels. Decreased left ventricular subepicardial prolyl 4-hydroxylase activity in 10HS and 10HT suggests transient corresponding decrease in the rate of collagen synthesis. This study shows that combination of endurance training and moderate hypobaric hypoxic condition leads to increased right ventricular collagen type III and IV gene expression associated with right ventricular hypertrophy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: Key words Collagen – cardiac muscle – endurance training – hypobaric condition – mRNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxic condition, physical training and their combination on collagen type I, III and IV gene expression in the ventricles and atria of rat heart. Male rats were assigned to four groups: normobaric sedentary (NS) and trained (NT), and hypobaric sedentary (HS) and trained (HT). Exposure to and treadmill running training in hypobaric condition were carried out in a hypobaric chamber (770–740 mbar, 2250–2550 m). Experimental periods were 10, 21 and 56 days; the groups of 91 days served as recovery groups from experimental settings of 56 days. Exposure to hypobaric condition as such and in combination with endurance training for 10 days increased right ventricular weight-to-body weight ratio (RV/BW) by 26 % (p 〉 0.001) and 23 % (p 〉 0.01), respectively, when compared to 10NS. RV/BW was significantly increased also in 21HT and 56HT. Left ventricular weight-to-body weight ratio was 13 % (p 〉 0.01) and 14 % (p 〉 0.01) higher in 21HT and 56 HT, respectively than in the respective NS. Right ventricular collagen type III mRNA level was 33 % (p = 0.065) and 38 b% (p 〉 0.01) higher in 10HT than in 10NS and 10NT, respectively. Right ventricular collagen type IV mRNA level was 29 % (p 〉 0.001) higher in 10HT than in 10NS. Relatively slight left ventricular hypertrophy was not associated with significant changes in collagen mRNA levels. Decreased left ventricular subepicardial prolyl 4-hydrosylase activity in 10HS and 10HT suggests transient corresponding decrease in the rate of collagen synthesis. This study shows that combination of endurance training and moderate hypobaric hypoxic condition leads to increased right ventricular collagen type III and IV gene expression associated with right ventricular hypertrophy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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