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  • 1
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; MALIGNANT GLIOMA ; MGMT ; PERSONALIZED MEDICINE ; PHASE-II TRIAL ; PROFILES ; temozolomide ; HIGH-GRADE GLIOMAS ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; NITROSOUREAS ; BEVACIZUMAB ; SINGLE-AGENT BEVACIZUMAB ; BRAIN-TUMOR CONSORTIUM ; DI-NEURO-ONCOLOGIA ; DOSE-INTENSE TEMOZOLOMIDE ; INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE ; MGMT PROMOTER METHYLATION
    Abstract: Newly diagnosed glioblastoma is now commonly treated with surgery, if feasible, or biopsy, followed by radiation plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. The treatment of recurrent glioblastoma continues to be a moving target as new therapeutic principles enrich the standards of care for newly diagnosed disease. We reviewed PubMed and American Society of Clinical Oncology abstracts from January 2006 to January 2012 to identify clinical trials investigating the treatment of recurrent or progressive glioblastoma with nitrosoureas, temozolomide, bevacizumab, and/or combinations of these agents. At recurrence, a minority of patients are eligible for second surgery or reirradiation, based on appropriate patient selection. In temozolomide-pretreated patients, progression-free survival rates at 6 months of 20%-30% may be achieved either with nitrosoureas, temozolomide in various dosing regimens, or bevacizumab. Combination regimens among these agents or with other drugs have not produced evidence for superior activity but commonly produce more toxicity. More research is needed to better define patient profiles that predict benefit from the limited therapeutic options available after the current standard of care has failed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23136223
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  • 2
    Abstract: Median age at diagnosis in patients with glioblastoma (GB) is slowly increasing with an aging population in Western countries, and was 64years in 2006. The number of patients age 65 and older with GB will double in 2030 compared with 2000. Survival in this older cohort of patients is significantly less than seen in younger patients. This may in part be related to more aggressive biology of tumor, reduced use of standard management approaches, increased toxicity of available therapies, and increased presence of comorbidities in this older patient population. Limited data do support the use of more extensive resection in these patients. Randomized data support the use of post-operative radiotherapy (RT) versus supportive care, but do not demonstrate a benefit for the use of the standard 6weeks course of RT over hypofractionated RT given over 3weeks. Preliminary data of randomized studies raise the possibility of temozolomide alone as an option for these patients. The use of 6weeks of RT with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide has been associated with reasonably good survival in several uncontrolled small series of selected older patients; however, this better outcome may be related to the selection of better prognosis patients rather than the specific therapy utilized. The current National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) CE.6/26062/22061 randomized study of short course RT with or without concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide will help determine the optimal therapy for this older cohort with currently available therapies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22722053
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  • 3
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Symptomatic epilepsy is a common complication of glioblastoma and requires pharmacotherapy. Several uncontrolled retrospective case series and a post hoc analysis of the registration trial for temozolomide indicated an association between valproic acid (VPA) use and improved survival outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To confirm the hypothesis suggested above, a combined analysis of survival association of antiepileptic drug use at the start of chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide was performed in the pooled patient cohort (n = 1,869) of four contemporary randomized clinical trials in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: AVAGlio (Avastin in Glioblastoma; NCT00943826), CENTRIC (Cilengitide, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma and Methylated Gene Promoter Status; NCT00689221), CORE (Cilengitide, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma and Unmethylated Gene Promoter Status; NCT00813943), and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0825 (NCT00884741). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between: (1) any VPA use and no VPA use at baseline or (2) VPA use both at start of and still after chemoradiotherapy. Results of Cox regression models stratified by trial and adjusted for baseline prognostic factors were analyzed. The same analyses were performed with levetiracetam (LEV). RESULTS: VPA use at start of chemoradiotherapy was not associated with improved PFS or OS compared with all other patients pooled (PFS: hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.07; P = .241; OS: HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.15; P = .633). Furthermore, PFS and OS of patients taking VPA both at start of and still after chemoradiotherapy were not different from those without antiepileptic drug use at both time points (PFS: HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.15; P = .467; OS: HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.40; P = .440). Similarly, no association with improved outcomes was observed for LEV use. CONCLUSION: The results of this analysis do not justify the use of VPA or LEV for reasons other than seizure control in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma outside clinical trials.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26786929
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  • 4
    Abstract: Importance: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1 or HMGCR, encoding the respective molecular targets of ezetimibe and statins, have previously been used as proxies to study the efficacy of these lipid-lowering drugs. Alleles near HMGCR are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, similar to the increased incidence of new-onset diabetes associated with statin treatment in randomized clinical trials. It is unknown whether alleles near NPC1L1 are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To investigate whether LDL-C-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1 and other genes encoding current or prospective molecular targets of lipid-lowering therapy (ie, HMGCR, PCSK9, ABCG5/G8, LDLR) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease of LDL-C-lowering genetic variants were investigated in meta-analyses of genetic association studies. Meta-analyses included 50775 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 270269 controls and 60801 individuals with coronary artery disease and 123504 controls. Data collection took place in Europe and the United States between 1991 and 2016. Exposures: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1, HMGCR, PCSK9, ABCG5/G8, and LDLR. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratios (ORs) for type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Results: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering genetic variants at NPC1L1 were inversely associated with coronary artery disease (OR for a genetically predicted 1-mmol/L [38.7-mg/dL] reduction in LDL-C of 0.61 [95% CI, 0.42-0.88]; P = .008) and directly associated with type 2 diabetes (OR for a genetically predicted 1-mmol/L reduction in LDL-C of 2.42 [95% CI, 1.70-3.43]; P 〈 .001). For PCSK9 genetic variants, the OR for type 2 diabetes per 1-mmol/L genetically predicted reduction in LDL-C was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.02-1.38; P = .03). For a given reduction in LDL-C, genetic variants were associated with a similar reduction in coronary artery disease risk (I2 = 0% for heterogeneity in genetic associations; P = .93). However, associations with type 2 diabetes were heterogeneous (I2 = 77.2%; P = .002), indicating gene-specific associations with metabolic risk of LDL-C-lowering alleles. Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis, exposure to LDL-C-lowering genetic variants in or near NPC1L1 and other genes was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. These data provide insights into potential adverse effects of LDL-C-lowering therapy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27701660
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; IDENTIFICATION ; MUTATIONS ; METAANALYSIS ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; LAMB2
    Abstract: More than 100 loci have been identified for age at menarche by genome-wide association studies; however, collectively these explain only approximately 3% of the trait variance. Here we test two overlooked sources of variation in 192,974 European ancestry women: low-frequency protein-coding variants and X-chromosome variants. Five missense/nonsense variants (in ALMS1/LAMB2/TNRC6A/TACR3/PRKAG1) are associated with age at menarche (minor allele frequencies 0.08-4.6%; effect sizes 0.08-1.25 years per allele; P〈5 x 10(-8)). In addition, we identify common X-chromosome loci at IGSF1 (rs762080, P=9.4 x 10(-13)) and FAAH2 (rs5914101, P=4.9 x 10(-10)). Highlighted genes implicate cellular energy homeostasis, post-transcriptional gene silencing and fatty-acid amide signalling. A frequently reported mutation in TACR3 for idiopathic hypogonatrophic hypogonadism (p.W275X) is associated with 1.25-year-later menarche (P=2.8 x 10(-11)), illustrating the utility of population studies to estimate the penetrance of reportedly pathogenic mutations. Collectively, these novel variants explain approximately 0.5% variance, indicating that these overlooked sources of variation do not substantially explain the 'missing heritability' of this complex trait.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26239645
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  • 6
  • 7
    ISSN: 1436-2236
    Keywords: Key words: Internal ribosome entry sites, bicistronic, dicistronic gene expression, zebrafish (Danio rerio), encephalomyocarditis virus, embryogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract: Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) allow ribosomal access to messenger RNA without a requirement for cap recognition and subsequent scanning to an initiator AUG. Hence, IRESs have been adapted into dicistronic vectors for the expression of more than one gene from a single mRNA. Dicistronic vectors have been used for many applications in mammalian tissue culture and transgenesis. However, whether the IRESs from mammalian viruses function without temporal or spatial restrictions in nonmammalian organisms like zebra fish (Danio rerio) is unknown. Therefore, we have examined the expression capabilities of the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) IRES during zebrafish embryogenesis. We determined that the EMCV IRES was sufficient to permit detectable expression of several second cistron reporters during zebrafish embryogenesis, including luciferase and green fluorescent protein. This suggests that our dicistronic vectors are suitable for general use in any vertebrate system, from fish to humans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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