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  • 1
    Keywords: HEALTH ; DESIGN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; OBESITY ; COLON-CANCER ; microsatellite instability ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES
    Abstract: Background: High body mass index (BMI) is consistently linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer for men, whereas the association is less clear for women. As risk estimates from observational studies may be biased and/or confounded, we conducted a Mendelian randomization study to estimate the causal association between BMI and colorectal cancer. Methods: Weused data from 10,226 colorectal cancer cases and 10,286 controls of European ancestry. The Mendelian randomization analysis used a weighted genetic risk score, derived from 77 genome-wide association study-identified variants associated with higher BMI, as an instrumental variable (IV). We compared the IV odds ratio (IV-OR) with the OR obtained using a conventional covariate-adjusted analysis. Results: Individuals carrying greater numbers of BMI-increasing alleles had higher colorectal cancer risk[ per weighted allele OR, 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.57]. Our IV estimation results support the hypothesis that genetically influenced BMI is directly associated with risk for colorectal cancer (IV-OR per 5 kg/m(2), 1.50; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01). In the sex-specific IV analyses higher BMI was associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer among women (IV-OR per 5 kg/m(2), 1.82; 95% CI, 1.26-2.61). For men, genetically influenced BMI was not associated with colorectal cancer (IV-OR per 5 kg/m(2), 1.18; 95% CI, 0.73-1.92). Conclusions: High BMI was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for women. Whether abdominal obesity, rather than overall obesity, is a more important risk factor for men requires further investigation. Impact: Overall, conventional epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies suggest a strong association between obesity and the risk of colorectal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25976416
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  • 2
    Keywords: WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; COLON-CANCER ; UNITED-STATES ; RECTAL-CANCER ; GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY ; BODY-SIZE ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES
    Abstract: Background: For men and women, taller height is associated with increased risk of all cancers combined. For colorectal cancer (CRC), it is unclear whether the differential association of height by sex is real or is due to confounding or bias inherent in observational studies. We performed a Mendelian randomization study to examine the association between height and CRC risk. Methods: To minimize confounding and bias, we derived a weighted genetic risk score predicting height (using 696 genetic variants associated with height) in 10 226 CRC cases and 10 286 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between height, genetically predicted height and CRC. Results: Using conventional methods, increased height (per 10-cm increment) was associated with increased CRC risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.02-1.15). In sex-specific analyses, height was associated with CRC risk for women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.05-1.26), but not men (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92-1.05). Consistent with these results, carrying greater numbers of (weighted) height-increasing alleles (per 1-unit increase) was associated with higher CRC risk for women and men combined (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01-1.14) and for women (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.19). There was weaker evidence of an association for men (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.96-1.15). Conclusion: We provide evidence for a causal association between height and CRC for women. The CRC-height association for men remains unclear and warrants further investigation in other large studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25997436
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