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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 1 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Mechanical ventalation system performance involves the provision of adequate amuunts of outdoor air, uniform distribution of ventilation air within the occupied space, and the maintenance of thermal comfort. Standard measurement techniques exist to evaluate thermal comfort and air change rates in mechanically ventilated buildings; procedures to evaluate air distribution or ventilation effectiveness in the field are still being developed. This paper presents measuremetlts of air change rates and ventilation effectivenes in an office/library building in Washington, DC. The tracer gas decay technique was used to measure whole building air change rates. The air change rates during the measurement period were essentially constant at about 0.8 air changes per hour, somewhat below the design specification and above the minimum recmmmded in ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. Ventilation effectiveness was investigated at several locations within the building through the measurement of local tracer gas decay rate and mean local age of air. The ventilation effectiveness measurements serve as an investigation of the applicability of the m e a s u r r n procedures employed, providing insight into the measurement issue of establishing initial conditions, the spatial variation in test results within a building, and the repeatabildy between tests. The results of the ventilation effectiveness meusurements are consistent with good distrhtion of the outdoor air by the ventilation system and good mixing within the occupied space.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Local age of air and air change effectiveness were determined in two office buildings using tracer gas techniques to study the applicability of the associated measurement procedures in mechanically ventilated office buildings. Measurement issues examined include the establishment of a uniform tracer gas concentration at the start of the test and the relationship of ventilation system configuration and system operation to the test procedure. Air change effectiveness was determined at locations in the occupied space based on the local age of air at that location and the age of air in the corresponding ventilation system return duct. Values of the air change effectiveness in the occupied space were generally close to one, which is consistent with good mixing of the Ventilation air within the occupied space. Deviations from 1.0, on the order of 10%, did occur, but given the limited experience with these measurement procedures in the field it is not clear whether these deviations are significant. These tests provide data on air change effectiveness to supplement the limited database on mechanically ventilated office buildings in the US. In addition, the experience obtained with the measurement procedures will assist in the development of a standardized approach to measuring air change effectiveness in the field.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1552-6909
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective: To examine the relationship between women's perceptions of the impact of the diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus and treatment adherence.Design: Longitudinal and prospective, extending from the time of diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus through delivery.Setting: An urban university-based tertiary perinatal center in Philadelphia.〈section xml:id="abs1-1"〉〈title type="main"〉Participants: A subsample of women enrolled in a larger study of early discharge and nurse specialist transitional care. The 29 women in the sample met the study criteria of diagnosis with gestational diabetes mellitus, English speaking, less than 36 weeks gestation, and telephone access at home.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Main Outcome Measure: Perceived impact of gestational diabetes mellitus was measured with the Impact of Event Scale. Treatment adherence included the percentage of recommended blood glucose self-monitoring, incidence of hypo- and hyperglycemia, obstetric visits kept, and dietary adherence.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Results: Descriptive and correlational analyses were used. Negative correlations between impact and blood glucose self-monitoring (r=−.38, p= .04) and impact and hypoglycemia (r=−.31, p= .10) were found. Positive correlation between obstetric visits and blood glucose self-monitoring (r= 34, p= .07) was found.Conclusions: Women who perceive gestational diabetes mellitus to have a great impact on their lives may be less adherent to the behavioral tasks that can influence blood glucose control, potentially increasing risk.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Purpose: Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who undergo surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy have an expected survival of only 2 years due to disease recurrence, frequently in the liver. We investigated the role of liver macrophages in progression of PDAC micrometastases to identify adjuvant treatment strategies that could prolong survival. Experimental Design: A murine splenic injection model of hepatic micrometastatic PDAC was used with five patient-derived PDAC tumors. The impact of liver macrophages on tumor growth was assessed by (i) depleting mouse macrophages in nude mice with liposomal clodronate injection, and (ii) injecting tumor cells into nude versus NOD- scid -gamma mice. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were used to measure CD47 ("don't eat me signal") expression on tumor cells and characterize macrophages in the tumor microenvironment. In vitro engulfment assays and mouse experiments were performed with CD47-blocking antibodies to assess macrophage engulfment of tumor cells, progression of micrometastases in the liver and mouse survival. Results: In vivo clodronate depletion experiments and NOD- scid -gamma mouse experiments demonstrated that liver macrophages suppress the progression of PDAC micrometastases. Five patient-derived PDAC cell lines expressed variable levels of CD47. In in vitro engulfment assays, CD47-blocking antibodies increased the efficiency of PDAC cell clearance by macrophages in a manner which correlated with CD47 receptor surface density. Treatment of mice with CD47-blocking antibodies resulted in increased time-to-progression of metastatic tumors and prolonged survival. Conclusions: These findings suggest that following surgical resection of PDAC, adjuvant immunotherapy with anti-CD47 antibody could lead to substantially improved outcomes for patients. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1415–25. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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