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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Clinical trial ; Fluoride ; Osteoporosis ; Vertebral fracture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The anti-fracture efficacy of sodium fluoride (NaF) was evaluated in 84 postmenopausal white women with spinal osteoporosis. The dose of NaF used was 75 mg/day and all patients in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial received calcium supplements (carbonate salt) 1500 mg/day in addition to participating in a structured physical therapy program. For each of the outcome measures (change in stature, change in cortical bone mass in the forearm and development of new vertebral fractures determined by change in vertebral morphometry and by scintigraphy) there was no significant difference between the fluoride or placebo treated groups. Side effects, predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms and the development of the painful lower extremity syndrome, occurred significantly more frequently in the fluoride group (P〈0.05). Peripheral fractures were not more frequent in the fluoride group. We conclude that, in the dose and manner used in this study, NaF is no more effective than placebo in retarding the progression of spinal osteoporosis. There is no role for NaF in the treatment of osteoporosis outside the confines of clinical research.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1399-3038
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Several studies have evaluated the value of cord blood IgE concentrations for predicting the risk of allergic disease in children. In all of these studies it is necessary to exclude cord blood samples in which the IgE may be falsely elevated due to admixing of maternal and fetal blood during parturition. The most common method for detecting mixing of fetal and maternal blood is measurement of cord blood IgA concentrations. We have examined the theoretical basis of IgA measurements for detecting maternal blood contamination and reexamined our own data to evaluate IgA measurements. Our data suggest that the average IgA concentration of 28. 2 μg/ml used in previous studies may not adequately exclude contaminated cord blood sample. Failure to reject contaminated cord blood samples would reduce the positive predictive value of cord btood IgE measurements.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background A family history of atopy, and cord blood immunoglobulin E concentration, have been shown to be predictors of atopic disease in children. Several studies have suggested that parental atopy may be related to newborn immunoglobulin E. Objective The purpose of our analysis was to evaluate whether parental history of allergic disease was associated with cord blood immunoglobulin E concentration. Methods The study subjects were from a defined population of 777 newborns delivered between 1987 and 1989. The mothers of these children completed a questionnaire during pregnancy concerning themselves and the child's father, including parental history of physician diagnosis of allergic diseases (allergies, hay fever and asthma). Total immunoglobulin E levels were quantitated in cord blood samples with an enzyme-hnked immunoassay.Results Median cord blood immunoglobulin E concentration was higher among infants whose mothers had a history of atopic disease, particularly for those with a history of asthma (P〈0.022) and allergen immunotherapy (P〈0.016) vs infants whose mothers had no history of any atopic disease. Comparing all babies with a maternal history of asthma, to babies where neither parent had a history of any atopic disease, the median cord blood immunoglobulin E was significantly higher (0.36IU/mL vs 0.21 IU/mL; P〈0.009). This association was found only among female infants (0.49IU/mL vs 0.20 IU/mL; P〈0.001).Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal, history of atopic disease was associated with an elevated immunoglobulin E among newborns. For maternal asthma, this association was only evident in infant girls.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The difference of twoposynomials (namely, polynomials with arbitrary real exponents, but positive coefficients and positive independent variables) is termed asignomial. Each signomial program (in which a signomial is to be either minimized or maximized subject to signomial constraints) is transformed into an equivalent posynomial program in which a posynomial is to be minimized subject only to inequality posynomial constraints. The resulting class of posynomial programs is substantially larger than the class of (prototype)geometric programs (namely, posynomial programs in which a posynomial is to be minimized subject only to upper-bound inequality posynomial constraints). However, much of the (prototype) geometric programming theory is generalized by studying theequilibrium solutions to thereversed geometric programs in this larger class. Actually, some of this theory is new even when specialized to the class of prototype geometric programs. On the other hand, all of it can indirectly, but easily, be applied to the much larger class of well-posedalgebraic programs (namely, programs involving real-valued functions that are generated solely by addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and the extraction of roots).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Optimality conditions ; geometric programming ; nonlinear programming ; ordinary programming ; Kuhn-Tucker conditions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Generalizations of the Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions are given, as are the fundamental theorems having to do with their necessity and sufficiency.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Saddle points ; duality ; generalized geometric programming ; ordinary Lagrangian ; geometric Lagrangian ; Kuhn-Tucker vectors ; P-vectors ; extremality conditions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Extensions of the ordinary Lagrangian are used both in saddle-point characterizations of optimality and in a development of duality theory.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Variational inequalities ; fixed points ; complementarity problems ; monotonicity conditions ; coercivity conditions ; mathematical programming
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract This paper introduces and analyzes generalized variational inequalities. The most general existence theory is established, traditional coercivity conditions are extended, properties of solution sets under various monotonicity conditions are investigated, and a computational scheme is considered. Similar results can be obtained for generalized complementarity and fixed-point problems.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Fenchel's duality theorem ; generalized geometric programming ; convex programming ; ordinary programming ; Slater's constraint qualification ; Kuhn-Tucker theorem
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Fenchel's duality theorem is extended to generalized geometric programming with explicit constraints—an extension that also generalizes and strengthens Slater's version of the Kuhn-Tucker theorem.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Geometric programming ; unconstrained duality ; constrained duality ; conjugate transform ; dual cone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A specialization of unconstrained duality (involving problems without explicit constraints) to constrained duality (involving problems with explicit constraints) provides an efficient mechanism for extending to the latter many important theorems that were previously established for the former.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Complementarity ; fixed points ; dual cones ; geometric programming
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Eaves and Kojima have separately provided fixed-point representations of the standard complementarity problem. Although the mappings used to describe their representations appear to be different, this paper shows they are essentially the same, a unification that is accomplished via a geometric programming argument in the context of a more general complementarity problem.
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