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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Plant Science Letters 22 (1981), S. 369-378 
    ISSN: 0304-4211
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Molecular breeding ; Germplasm utilization ; L. parviflorum ; Quantitative trait loci ; Tomato ; Introgression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Lycopersicon parviflorum is a sexually compatible, wild tomato species which has been largely unutilized in tomato breeding. The Advanced Backcross QTL (AB-QTL) strategy was used to explore this genome for QTLs affecting traits of agronomic importance in an interspecific cross between a tomato elite processing inbred, Lycopersicon esculentum E6203, and the wild species L. parviflorum (LA2133). A total of 170 BC2 plants were genotyped by means of 133 genetic markers (131 RFLPs; one PCR-based marker, I-2, and one morphological marker, u, uniform ripening). Approximately 170 BC3 families were grown in replicated field trials, in California, Spain and Israel, and were scored for 30 horticultural traits. Significant putative QTLs were identified for all traits, for a total of 199 QTLs, ranging from 1 to 19 QTLs detected for each trait. For 19 (70%) traits (excluding traits for which effects of either direction are not necessarily favourable or unfavourable) at least one QTL was identified for which the L. parviflorum allele was associated with an agronomically favourable effect, despite the overall inferior phenotype of the wild species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Molecular markers ; Introgression ; Plant breeding ; Quantitative trait loci
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Approximately 170 BC2 plants from a cross between an elite processing inbred (recurrent parent) and the wild species Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium LA1589 (donor parent) were analyzed with segregating molecular markers covering the entire tomato genome. Marker data were used to identify QTLs controlling a battery of horticultural traits measured on BC2F1 and BC3 families derived from the BC2 individuals. Despite its overall inferior appearance, L. pimpinellifolium was shown to possess QTL alleles capable of enhancing most traits important in processing tomato production. QTL-NIL lines, containing specific QTLs modifying fruit size and shape, were subsequently constructed and shown to display the transgressive phenotypes predicted from the original BC2 QTL analysis. The potential of exploiting unadapted and wild germplasm via advanced backcross QTL analysis for the enhancement of elite crop varieties is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Coffee ; RAPD ; RFLP ; Linkage map ; Doubled haploids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A linkage map for coffee (Coffea canephora P.) totalling 1402 cM has been developed on the basis of a population of doubled haploids. Both RFLP markers and PCR-based markers (RAPD) were used to construct 15 linkage groups. Coffee genomic and cDNA clones provided the source of the probes. In total, 47 RFLP and 100 RAPD loci have been placed on the linkage map. A rather low DNA polymorphism rate (18% for RFLP markers and 29% for RAPD primers) was detected. Only 81% of RAPD markers and 85% of RFLP markers fit an expected 1∶1 ratio (P〈0.01). The availability of a molecular linkage map has many implications for the future development of the genetics and breeding of this commercially important crop species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Heterozygosity ; Molecular markers ; Genetic map ; Quantitative trait loci ; Theobroma cacao
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A genetic linkage map of Theobroma cacao (cocoa) has been constructed from 131 backcross trees derived from a cross between a single tree of the variety Catongo and an F1 tree from the cross of Catongo by Pound 12. The map comprises 138 markers: 104 RAPD loci, 32 RFLP loci and two morphologic loci. Ten linkage groups were found which cover 1068 centimorgans (cM). Only six (4%) molecular-marker loci show a significant deviation from the expected 1∶1 segregation ratio.The average distance between two adjacent markers is 8.3 cM. The final genome-size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 1078 to 1112 cM for the cocoa genome. This backcross progeny segregates for two apparently single gene loci controlling (1) anthocyanidin synthesis (Anth) in seeds, leaves and flowers and (2) self-compatibility (Autoc). The Anth locus was found to be 25 cM from Autoc and two molecular markers co-segregate with Anth. The genetic linkage map was used to localize QTLs for early flowering, trunk diameter, jorquette height and ovule number in the BC1 generation using both single-point ANOVA and interval mapping. A minimum number of 2–4 QTLs (P〈0.01) involved in the genetic expression of the traits studied was detected. Coincident map locations of a QTL for jorquette height and trunk diameter suggests the possibility of pleiotropic effects in cocoa for these traits. The combined estimated effects of the different mapped QTLs explained between 11.2% and 25.8% of the phenotypic variance observed in the BC1 population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key wordsCoffee  ;  RAPD  ;  RFLP  ; Linkage map  ;  Doubled haploids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A linkage map for coffee (Coffea canephora P.) totalling 1402 cM has been developed on the basis of a population of doubled haploids. Both RFLP markers and PCR-based markers (RAPD) were used to construct 15 linkage groups. Coffee genomic and cDNA clones provided the source of the probes. In total, 47 RFLP and 100 RAPD loci have been placed on the linkage map. A rather low DNA polymorphism rate (18% for RFLP markers and 29% for RAPD primers) was detected. Only 81% of RAPD markers and 85% of RFLP markers fit an expected 1:1 ratio The availability of a molecular linkage map has many implications for the future development of the genetics and breeding of this commercially important crop species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Theobroma cacao ; RFLP ; RAPD ; Genetic diversity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were used to evaluate genetic relationships within the Theobroma cacao species and to assess the organization of its genetic diversity. Genetic variability was estimated with 18 primers and 43 RFLP probes on 155 cocoa trees belonging to different morphological groups and coming from various geographic origins. The majority of the RFLP probes issued from low-copy DNA sequences. On the basis of on the genetic distance matrices, the two molecular methods gave related estimates of the genetic relationship between genotypes. Although an influence of cocoa morphological groups and geographical origins of trees was observed, a lack of gene differentiation characterized the T. cacao accessions studied. The continuous RFLP variability observed within the species may reflect the hybridization and introgressions between trees of different origins. Nevertheless, the Nacional type was detected to be genetically specific and different from well-known types such as Forastero, Criollo and Trinitario. Some of those genotypes were characterized by a low heterozygosity rate and may constitute the original Nacional pool. These results also provide information for the constitution of a cocoa tree core collection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Molecular breeding ; Germplasm ; Quantitative traits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Improved-processing tomato lines were produced by the molecular breeding strategy of advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) analysis. These near-isogenic lines (NILs) contained unique introgressions of wild alleles originating from two donor wild species, Lycopersicon hirsutum (LA1777) and L. pimpinellifolium (LA1589). Wild alleles targeted for trait improvement were selected on the basis of previously published replicated QTL data obtained from advanced backcross populations for a battery of important agronomic traits. Twenty three NILs were developed for 15 genomic regions which were predicted to contain 25 quantitative trait factors for the improvement of seven agronomic traits: total yield, red yield, soluble solids, brix×red yield, viscosity, fruit color, and fruit firmness. An evaluation of the agronomic performance of the NILs in five locations worldwide revealed that 22 out of the 25 (88%) quantitative factors showed the phenotypic improvement predicted by QTL analysis of the BC3 populations, as NILs in at least one location. Per-location gains over the elite control ranged from 9% to 59% for brix×red yield; 14% to 33% for fruit color; 17% to 34% for fruit firmness; 6% to 22% for soluble-solids content; 7% to 22% for viscosity; 15% to 48% for red yield, and 20% to 28% for total yield. The inheritance of QTLs, the implementation of the AB-QTL methodology for characterizing unadapted germplasm and the applicability of this method to other crops are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Molecular markers  ;  Introgression  ;  Plant breeding  ;  Quantitative trait loci
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Approximately 170 BC2 plants from a cross between an elite processing inbred (recurrent parent) and the wild species Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium LA1589 (donor parent) were analyzed with segregating molecular markers covering the entire tomato genome. Marker data were used to identify QTLs controlling a battery of horticultural traits measured on BC2F1 and BC3 families derived from the BC2 individuals. Despite its overall inferior appearance, L. pimpinellifolium was shown to possess QTL alleles capable of enhancing most traits important in processing tomato production. QTL-NIL lines, containing specific QTLs modifying fruit size and shape, were subsequently constructed and shown to display the transgressive phenotypes predicted from the original BC2 QTL analysis. The potential of exploiting unadapted and wild germplasm via advanced backcross QTL analysis for the enhancement of elite crop varieties is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Heterozygosity ; Molecular markers ; Genetic map ; Quantitative trait loci ; Theobroma cacao
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A genetic linkage map of Theobroma cacao (cocoa) has been constructed from 131 backcross trees derived from a cross between a single tree of the variety Catongo and an F1 tree from the cross of Catongo by Pound 12. The map comprises 138 markers: 104 RAPD loci, 32 RFLP loci and two morphologic loci. Ten linkage groups were found which cover 1068 centimorgans (cM). Only six (4%) molecular-marker loci show a significant deviation from the expected 1:1 segregation ratio.The average distance between two adjacent markers is 8.3 cM. The final genome-size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 1078 to 1112 cM for the cocoa genome. This backcross progeny segregates for two apparently single gene loci controlling (1) anthocyanidin synthesis (Anth) in seeds, leaves and flowers and (2) self-compatibility (Autoc). The Anth locus was found to be 25 cM from Autoc and two molecular markers co-segregate with Anth. The genetic linkage map was used to localize QTLs for early flowering, trunk diameter, jorquette height and ovule number in the BC1 generation using both single-point ANOVA and interval mapping. A minimum number of 2–4 QTLs (P〈0.01) involved in the genetic expression of the traits studied was detected. Coincident map locations of a QTL for jorquette height and trunk diameter suggests the possibility of pleiotropic effects in cocoa for these traits. The combined estimated effects of the different mapped QTLs explained between 11.2% and 25.8% of the phenotypic variance observed in the BC1 population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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