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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Porphyromonas gingivalis has been associated with severe forms of periodontitis. The question can be raised about the origin of this suspected periodontal pathogen. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the possibility of transmission of P. gingivalis between spouses. 18 patients were selected with severe periodontitis and colonized with P. gingivalis. 10 of their spouses appeared to be colonized with P. gingivalis too. 8 of the patients and their spouses were investigated further clinically and microbiologically. Microbiological evaluation revealed mostly high %s of P. gingivalis in the pockets, not only of the patients (5–48% of the cultivable flora), but also in 7 of the 8 spouses (0.2–61%). Furthermore, this species was isolated often from the saliva, the tongue, the buccal mucosa and the tonsillar area from both patients and spouses. For typing purposes, bacterial DNA was isolated, treated with the restriction endonucleases Bam HI or Pst 1, after which the DNA fragments were separated by agarose gelelectrophoresis. With one exception, each individual was colonized with only one clonal type of P. gingivalis. The DNA patterns of all P. gingivalis isolates from unrelated individuals were found to be distinct. In contrast, in 6 of the 8 couples, the DNA patterns of isolates from husband and wife were indistinguishable. From these data, it can be concluded that it is most likely, that P. gingivalis can be transmitted between spouses. It remains to be investigated whether transmission of P. gingivalis is a risk factor for developing periodontal destruction.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To explore aspects of cellular immune responses in the pathogenesis of periodontitis we analyzed phenotype and function of peripheral T cells. Two groups of subjects participated: one group consisted of 10 highly susceptible patients with severe periodontitis (mean age 29 years) and a control group consisted of 10 age, gender and race matched subjects with gingivitis. From all subjects peripheral blood was collected. The results showed that the numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as the CD4/CD8 ratio, and the proliferative capacity of T cells, were not different between the two groups of subjects. Also, proportions of naive and memory T cells for both the CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations were not different. Functional heterogeneity within the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments was determined by intracellular analysis of interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. On the basis of these latter analyses among CD4+ and CD8+ cells, T helper (Th) 1 or Th2 function and T cytotoxic (Tc) 1 or Tc2 function, respectively, could be deduced. No significant differences in proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells positive for intracellular IFN-γ or IL-4 were observed between periodontitis patients and gingivitis controls; however a higher level of intracellular IL-4 in CD8+ T cells was seen in periodontitis patients. This might indicate that there is a shift towards a Tc2 function within the CD8+ T cell subpopulation. The current explorative study suggests that further research into the role of CD8+T cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis is warranted.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Products of periodontopathic bacteria exert immunomodulatory effects on various lymphoid cell populations, some of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodonthis. It has recently been suggested that some of these bacterial products may possess superantigenic (SAg) activity. SAg bind simultaneously to the Vβ chain of T cell receptors and to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules, thereby activating as many as 35% of T cells to proliferate and produce cytokines. In order to examine this question, the proliferation of splenic and thymic T cells from immunologically naive, 3-6-wk-old Balb/c (H-2d), C57BL/6 (H-2b) and C3H/HeJ (H-2k) mice was assessed in response to sonic extracts of periodontopathogens. Laboratory and/or reference strains of a.o. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens were used as stimulants. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a known superantigen, was utilized as a positive control. Unfractionated spleen cells responded to several of the tested preparations of the different bacteria, as well as to SEB, Con A and Escherichia coli LPS. Thymocytes responded to Con A and SEB, but not to LPS or to any sonic extract. Spleen cells depleted of B cells by panning responded to SEB and Con A, but not to LPS and showed a reduced response to sonicates. The residual response of B cell-depleted spleen cells was reduced essentially to background by treatment with anti-Thy 1.2 + C'. Similar results were obtained in the presence of 5% added mitomycin-treated antigen presenting cells, indicating that these cells were not limiting. These results demonstrate that extracts of periodontopathic bacteria do not stimulate murine T cells in a manner consistent with superantigenic activation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: At present Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as an important microorganism in the etiology of some forms of periodontitis. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the number of Restriction Endonuclease Analysis (REA)-types present in the oral cavity of A. actinomycetem-comitans positive subjects and to study the possibility of transmission of A. actinomycetemcomitans within families of adult periodontitis patients. DNA of A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates was digested with a combination of the restriction endonucleases Pst I and Bam HI, after which the DNA fragments were separated by agarose gelelectrophoresis. To study the number of REA-types, multiple A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates obtained from 8 different sites in the oral cavity of five subjects were typed. The results showed that in most cases only one REA-type is present. In the 13 families investigated in 4 of the 26 children (15%) and in 1 of the 13 spouses (8%) of the adult periodontitis patients an indistinguishable REA-type was found within the families. This suggests that also in the case of adult periodontitis transmission of A. actinomycetemcomitans is possible, but does not seem to occur easily.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The periodontal bacteria Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens have been recently separated from each other. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution and routes of transmission of these bacteria among family members. Seven patients with moderate to severe periodontitis were selected. These probands, their spouses and 14 of their children were investigated. The presence of Pr. Intermedia and Pr. nigrescens was determined by culture techniques in pooled subgingival plaque samples, in the saliva, on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosa. Differentiation of Pr. intermedia and Pr. nigrescens was performed by enzyme electrophoretic mobility. From all 7 patients, as well as 4 spouses and 3 of the children, Pr. intermedia could be isolated. Pr. Nigrescens was found in 2 of the 7 patients, in 5 of the spouses and in 5 of the 6 children aged 5–10 yr. In the 8 children aged 0–4 yr both species were seldom isolated. These data are in accordance with earlier findings that Pr. Intermedia is associated with periodontitis and Pr. Nigrescens with a relatively healthy periodontal condition. Ribotyping of bacteria was performed by hybridization of Hindlll restriction endonuclease digests of chromosomal DNA with ribosomal DNA. Isolates from unrelated individuals always had distinct ribotypes. Indistinguishable ribotypes of Pr. intermedia and Pr. Nigrescens were found both among married couples and among parents and children. This indicates that intrafamilial transmission of Pr. intermedia and Pr. Nigrescens is possible both between adults and between parents and children.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of periodontopathic microorganisms and periodontal destruction in the spouses and children of adult periodontitis patients. For this study, 24 families were selected on the basis of one parent with severe periodontal breakdown and the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and/or Porphyromonas gingivalis and/or more than 30%Prevotella intermedia subgingivally. The clinical examination of both parents and children included pocket depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL) measurements. Samples for bacterial examination were obtained from the mucous membranes, the saliva and pockets. Pocket selection was based on the most advanced periodontitis situation found in a subject. The samples were cultured for the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and P. intermedia. By phase-contrast microscopy, the % of spirochetes and motile microorganisms was assessed. The number of children within each family varied between 1 and 3. In total 49 children were investigated with a range in age of 3 months to 15 years. Results showed that under the age of 5 years, none of the children had CAL. whereas in the age group of 5–15 years, 26.5% had 1–5 sites in the primary and/or permanent dentition with 1–3 mm CAL. 3 of the spouses had no interproximal CAL. 16 of the 24 spouses had a light to moderate form of periodontitis, with at least one site with 1 to 4 mm CAL and 5 spouses had severe periodontal breakdown with sites showing at least 8 mm CAL. Spirochetes, motile microorganisms and P. intermedia were frequently present in all family members. 18 out of the 24 probands were positive for P. gingivalis. This organism was found once only in a 5-year-old boy and in 11 of the spouses. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in 13 probands; 5 children and 5 of the spouses were also positive for this bacterium. If a child harboured one of the periodontopathogens, at least 1 of the parents was also positive for that bacterium. This phenomenon may be due to transmission of microorganisms between family members. Comparison of the clinical data reported in the present study with similar clinical parameters from epidemiological studies of the Dutch population suggest that the spouses and children of adult periodontitis patients might be at relatively high risk of developing periodontal breakdown.
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