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  • 1
    ISSN: 0303-7207
    Keywords: calcium-A 23187 ; cytochalasin B ; glycogen synthase ; insulin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0305-0491
    Keywords: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase ; Muscle tissue ; adenylate kinase ; citrate synthase ; comparative enzymology ; constant-proportion enzyme groups and metabolic correlations ; creatine kinase ; energy-supplying metabolism ; glycogen phosphorylase ; hexokinase ; triosephosphate dehydrogenase
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present study was undertaken in order to test the possibility of microphotometric evaluation of in situ hybridizations. The histochemical detection of mRNA specific to the slow myosin heavy chain (HCI), in fibre cross sections of normal and transforming rabbit muscles with a digoxigenin-labelled complementary RNA (cRNA) probe was used as a model. Scanning densitometry of Northern blot hybridizations showed that the detection of cRNA/mRNA hybrids by a staining reaction catalysed by alkaline phosphatase coupled to an anti-digoxigenin antibody occurs in a concentration-dependent manner and follows a linear time course. These findings were the basis for elaborating a comparative microphotometric evaluation of in situ hybridization in tissue sections by measuring the reaction rate of the alkaline phosphatase-catalysed formazan production. Relative amounts of HCI mRNA were thus determined by comparing reaction rates instead of by single point microphotometry. This method was applied to studies on the distribution of HCI mRNA in different fibre types of normal rabbit muscles and and muscles undergoing fast-to-slow fibre transformation in response to low-frequency stimulation. The different fibre types were identified by histochemical staining for myofibrillar actomyosin ATPase (mATPase) in cross sections adjacent to the sections processed for in situ hybridization. On the average, type I fibres displayed 2.3-fold higher reaction rates than the mean value recorded for C fibres. According to the pronounced scattering of the values measured in single C fibres, these fibres represented a heterogeneous population in the transforming muscle. Finally, results obtained from low-frequency stimulated muscle indicated that fibres which were still unambigously identified as type II, started to express low amounts of HCI mRNA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We present an improved method for microphotometric measurement of enzyme activity in muscle fibres by determining maximum reaction rates using computer-assisted image analysis. The method was used to determine absolute and relative activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in 4801 whole-fibre cross-sections of rabbit tibialis anterior muscles stimulated at low frequency (10 Hz) for different time periods of up to 50 days. Measurements were performed on cross-sections of composite blocks from stimulated and contralateral control muscles. The validity of the method was checked by determining SDH activity in homogenates of the same muscles using a standard photometric assay. Both methods yielded similar results for the time-dependent increases of SDH activity in response to chronic low-frequency stimulation. Significant increases in catalytic activity were detected by the two methods only in muscles stimulated for longer than 8 days. According to homogenate measurements, overall SDH activity was 7.4-fold elevated in 50-day-stimulated total muscles. Depending on whether or not measurements were corrected for the so-called nothing-dehydrogenase activity, the average increase in microphotometrically determined SDH activity amounted to approximately 8-fold or 10-fold, respectively. Microphotometry revealed pronounced scattering of SDH activities within the fibre populations of both normal and stimulated muscles. The heterogeneity of the fibre population with regard to SDH activity increased in long-term stimulated muscles ranging between 5-fold and 15-fold elevations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  A tetrazolium-based microphotometric method has been devised for the determination of structure-bound dehydrogenase activities with correction for nothing-dehydrogenase artefacts. The method is based on the microphotometric recording of maximum reaction rates in a simple incubation chamber and consists of two successive measurements on the same section, the first in the absence and the second in the presence of the substrate. Following the first measurement, the substrate-free medium is quickly exchanged with the substrate-containing medium and a second measurement is taken. Subtraction of the first from the second reaction rate yields the enzyme activity corrected for nothing-dehydrogenase. Measurements of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in skeletal muscle fibres, liver, cardiac atrium and ventricle demonstrate the feasibility of the method. Measurements on the extensor digitorum longus muscle of rat reveal a range of up to fivefold differences in SDH activity within the fibre population of this muscle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Muscle fibers re commonly classified histochemically into three types by the staining intensity for myosin ATPase combined with those for metabolic enzymes. Preincubation at pH 4.6 gives rise to three staining intensities of myosin ATPase which are also used for fiber typing. The two classification systems were compared by computer analysis of the individual staining profiles of over 2,500 fibers, and found not to be equivalent. The analysis showed metabolic heterogeneity among the fiber groups distinguished according to their differences in myosin ATPase.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 67 (1980), S. 225-231 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Distribution of succinate dehydrogenase activity along muscle fibres has been studied qualitatively by histochemistry on single microdissected rat muscle fibres and quantitatively by comparative kinetic microphotometry on longitudinal muscle sections. Qualitative staining reactions showed no appreciable variations in enzyme activity along the fibres regardless of fibre type. By quantitative assessment, minor variations were found along fibres but were within the range of the experimental error. These variations are of the same magnitudes as those observed in enzyme activities of pieces of the same fibre by means of quantitative microchemical methods performed in our laboratory (Spamer and Pette 1979; Nemeth et al. 1980a, b). Our results provide evidence that the enzyme levels are the same along the course of a muscle fibre.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A comparative study was performed on the fibre populations in tibialis anterior muscles of mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, cat and dog using the two different methods of histochemical staining for myofibrillar ATPase after acid (Brooke and Kaiser 1970) or alkaline preincubations (Guth and Samaha 1970). For all species a complete correspondence existed between type I (Brooke and Kaiser 1970) and β fibres (Samaha et al. 1970). Gross correspondence (〉85%) existed between IIA and IIB (Brooke and Kaiser 1970) and αβ and α fibres (Samaha et al. 1970) respectively in mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, cat and dog. In the case of mouse and dog, this high degree of correspondence was based on the assumption that mouse tibialis anterior contains no type I and the dog no type IIB fibres. For the rat, a pronounced overlap existed between IIA fibres on the one hand and αβ and α fibres on the other hand as well as between IIB fibres and αβ and α fibres. These observations lead to the conclusion that the two classification schemes are not interchangeable for all species and that the two terminologies should be used only in relation with the methods from which they were derived.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Myofibrillar actomyosin ATPase activity has been studied histochemically in the closer muscle of the crab Eriphia spinifrons. Preincubation at pH 4.6 and 5.0 reveals differences in the lability of the ATPase. This permits the discrimination of four fibre types. Of these, three represent subgroups of rapidly contracting fibres. The histochemically defined fibre types correspond well with four groups defined according to electrophysiological criteria.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fibre types in the costal region of the diaphragm muscle of several mammalian species with widely different respiratory rates were examined microphotometrically for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. Mean activities indicated no significant (p〉0.05) difference between the type I and IIA fibres for any of the species examined. SDH activities in type IIB fibres were significantly lower (p〈0.05) than either the type I or type IIA fibres in the cat, guinea pig, rat and rabbit whereas in the mouse no difference was found. The dog had no classical type 1B fibres. Analysis of the distribution of SDH activities by fibre type indicated a wide scattering of scores with no distinct separation between fibre types. Large differences in SDH activity were noted between species. Mean SDH activities were highest in the mouse and rat, intermediate in the rabbit and guinea pig and lowest in the cat and dog. These data suggest an association between respiratory rate and aerobic oxidative potential of the various fibre types in diaphragms of the species examined.
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