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  • 1
    Keywords: GROWTH ; proliferation ; TISSUE ; ACID ; SPECTROMETRY ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; aerobic glycolysis ; 2-hydroxyglutarate ; METABOLIC TRANSFORMATION ; GLUTAMINASE
    Abstract: Exogenous glutamine is an important source of energy and molecular building blocks for many tumors. There is a renewed interest in therapeutically targeting glutamine metabolism due to the recent discovery of two novel glutaminase inhibitors. To quantify the dysregulation of the glutamate-glutamine equilibrium in breast cancer, metabolomics analysis of 270 clinical breast cancer and 97 normal breast samples was carried out using gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Positive correlation between glutamate and glutamine in normal breast tissues switched to negative correlation between glutamate and glutamine in breast cancer tissues. Compared with the ratio of glutamate to glutamine in normal tissues, we found 56% of the ER+ tumor tissues and 88% of the ER- tumor tissues glutamate-enriched. The glutamate-to-glutamine ratio (GGR) significantly correlated with ER status (p = 8.0E-09) and with tumor grade (p = 3.3E-05). Higher levels of GGR were associated with prolonged overall survival in univariate analysis (HR = 0.77, p = 0.027) and in multivariate analysis (HR = 0.73, p = 0.038). GGR levels were reflected in an unsupervised clustering of metabolomics profiles. In a supervised analysis of metabolomics data and of genome-wide expression data, replacement of GGR by metabolite surrogate markers was feasible, while replacement of GGR by RNA markers had a limited accuracy. Functional analysis of the gene expression data showed negative correlation between glutamate enrichment and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway. Our findings may have important implications for patient stratification related to utilization of glutaminase inhibitors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25155347
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  • 2
    Abstract: PURPOSE: We elucidated the value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) as an independent predictor for pathologic complete response (pCR) rate and as a prognostic marker for disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated stromal TILs in 498 HER2-positive breast cancer samples of the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro (G4) and GeparQuinto (G5) trials. Levels of TILs were determined as a continuous parameter per 10% increase and as lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC; 〉/= 60% TILs), and correlated with pCR rate and DFS. RESULTS: In the complete cohort, HER2-positive LPBC cases had a significantly increased pCR rates compared with non-LPBC types. They were significant predictors for pCR in univariate (10% TILs: OR 1.12, P = 0.002; LPBC: OR 2.02, P = 0.002) and multivariate analyses (10% TILs: OR 1.1, P = 0.014; LPBC: OR 1.87, P = 0.009). This effect was also detectable in the trastuzumab-treated (10% TILs: OR 1.12, P = 0.018; LPBC: OR 2.08, P = 0.013) but not in the lapatinib-treated subgroup. We identified a low-risk (pCR/LPBC) and a high-risk group (no pCR/no LPBC) regarding DFS. In triple-positive breast cancer, TILs are of more prognostic relevance than pCR. CONCLUSIONS: We could demonstrate the predictive and prognostic impact of TILs in HER2-positive breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. In combination with pCR rate, TILs may help to stratify prognostic subgroups, thereby guiding future therapy decisions. Clin Cancer Res; 22(23); 5747-54. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27189162
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; LUNG-CANCER ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; PROTEIN ; CIRCULATING TUMOR-CELLS ; C-MET ; THERAPEUTIC TARGET ; LEUKEMIA STEM-CELLS ; SIRP-ALPHA ; TIVANTINIB
    Abstract: Although luminal-type primary breast cancer can be efficiently treated, development of metastatic disease remains a significant clinical problem. We have previously shown that luminal-type circulating tumor cells (CTCs) co-expressing the tyrosine-kinase MET and CD47, a ligand involved in cancer cell evasion from macrophage scavenging, are able to initiate metastasis in xenografts. Here, we investigated the clinical relevance of MET-CD47 co-expression in 255 hormone receptor positive breast tumors by immunohistochemistry and found a 10.3- year mean overall-survival difference between MET-CD47 double-positive and double-negative patients (p〈0.001) MET-CD47 co-expression defined a novel independent prognosticator for overall-survival by multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model: HR: 4.1, p〈0.002) and CD47 expression alone or in combination with MET was strongly associated with lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of metastatic patient blood revealed consistent presence of MET+CD47+ CTCs (range 0.8 - 33.3% of CTCs) and their frequency was associated with increased metastatic spread. Finally, primary uncultured CTCs with high MET+CD47+ content showed an enhanced capacity to initiate metastasis in mice. Detection and targeting of MET and CD47 may thus provide a rational basis for risk stratification and treatment of patients with luminal-type breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25230070
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; LIGAND ; PREOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY ; TUMORIGENESIS ; bone metastasis ; NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY ; OSTEOCLAST ; III RANDOMIZED GEPARTRIO ; RANKL/RANK/OPG ; DENOSUMAB
    Abstract: RANK ligand (RANKL) is crucial for the development of mouse mammary glands during pregnancy. RANKL functions as a major paracrine effector of the mitogenic action of progesterone in mammary epithelium via its receptor RANK and has a role in expansion and regenerative potential of mammary stem cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of RANKL attenuates the development of mammary carcinoma and inhibits metastatic progression in multiple mouse models. Primary breast carcinoma samples from the neoadjuvant GeparTrio study were analyzed to correlate the expression of human RANK and RANKL with pathological complete response (pCR), disease-free (DFS), and overall (OS) survival. Pre-treatment FFPE core biopsies (n = 601) were analyzed for percentage and intensity of immunohistochemical RANK and RANKL expression. Antibodies against human RANK (N-1H8; Amgen) and human RANKL (M366; Amgen) were used. RANK protein was expressed in 160 (27 %) patients. Increased RANK expression was observed in 14.5 % of patients and correlated with high tumor grade (p 〈 0.023) and negative hormone receptor (HR) status (p 〈 0.001). Patients with high RANK expression showed a higher pCR rate (23.0 % vs. 12.6 %, p = 0.010), shorter DFS (p = 0.038), and OS (p = 0.011). However, prognostic and predictive information was not an independent parameter. Only 6 % of samples expressed RANKL, which was not correlated with any clinical features. Higher RANK expression in the primary tumor is associated with a higher sensitivity to chemotherapy, but also a higher risk of relapse and death. Our study provides a basis for further exploration of the antitumor activity of clinical antibodies against RANKL.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24737168
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  • 5
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Modulation of immunologic interactions in cancer tissue is a promising therapeutic strategy. To investigate the immunogenicity of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive and triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (BCs), we evaluated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and immunologically relevant genes in the neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: GeparSixto investigated the effect of adding carboplatin (Cb) to an anthracycline-plus-taxane combination (PM) on pathologic complete response (pCR). A total of 580 tumors were evaluated before random assignment for stromal TILs and lymphocyte-predominant BC (LPBC). mRNA expression of immune-activating (CXCL9, CCL5, CD8A, CD80, CXCL13, IGKC, CD21) as well as immunosuppressive factors (IDO1, PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA4, FOXP3) was measured in 481 tumors. RESULTS: Increased levels of stromal TILs predicted pCR in univariable (P 〈 .001) and multivariable analyses (P 〈 .001). pCR rate was 59.9% in LPBC and 33.8% for non-LPBC (P 〈 .001). pCR rates 〉/= 75% were observed in patients with LPBC tumors treated with PMCb, with a significant test for interaction with therapy in the complete (P = .002) and HER2-positive (P = .006), but not the TNBC, cohorts. Hierarchic clustering of mRNA markers revealed three immune subtypes with different pCR rates (P 〈 .001). All 12 immune mRNA markers were predictive for increased pCR. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were observed for PD-L1 (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.34 to 1.86; P 〈 .001) and CCL5 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.62; P 〈 .001). CONCLUSION: Immunologic factors were highly significant predictors of therapy response in the GeparSixto trial, particularly in patients treated with Cb. After further standardization, they could be included in histopathologic assessment of BC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25534375
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  • 6
    Abstract: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a central predictive biomarker in breast cancer. Inaccurate HER2 results in different laboratories could be as high as 20%. However, this statement is based on data generated more than 13 years ago and may not reflect the standards of modern diagnostic pathology. We compared central and local HER2 testing in a total of 1581 HER2-positive tumors from five clinical trials. We evaluated the clinical relevance for pathological complete response (pCR) and disease-free survival in a subgroup of 677 tumors, which received an anti-HER2 therapy. Over the period of 12 years, the discordance rate for HER2 decreased from 52.4 (GeparTrio) to 8.4% (GeparSepto). Discordance rates were significantly higher in hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors (26.6%), compared to HR-negative tumors (16.3%, P〈0.0001), which could be explained by a different distribution of HER2 mRNA levels in HR-positive and HR-negative tumors. pCR rates were significantly lower in discordant tumors (13.7%) compared to concordant tumors (32.2%, GeparQuattro and GeparQuinto, P〈0.001). In survival analysis, tumors with discordant HER2 testing had a reduced overall survival (OS) in the HR-negative group (P=0.019) and a trend for improved OS in the HR-positive group (P=0.125). The performance of local HER2 testing was considerably improved over time and has reached a 92% concordance, which shows that quality initiatives in diagnostic pathology are working. Tumors with discordant HER2 testing had a reduced therapy response and different survival rates.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29271415
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