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  • 1
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: 60-Hz electric fields ; perinatal exposure ; rat ; visual-evoked response ; central nervous system ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Two independent series of experiments were performed on 114 male Sprague-Dawley derived, albino rat pups, which represented 61 litters in experimental series I and 53 litters in experimental series II. Animals were exposed for 20 h/day from conception to testing (postnatal days 11-20) to a vertical, 65-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field or sham-exposed. Recordings of the visual-evoked response (VER) were obtained using a small silver ball electrode placed epidurally over the visual cortex. Visual stimuli consisted of 10-μS light flashes delivered at 0.2 Hz. Computer-averaged VERs were obtained and power spectral analyses (fast Fourier transform) were performed on the tapered (split cosine-bell window), averaged VERs. The expected age-related changes were clearly evident; however, a detailed analysis of VER component latencies, peak-to-peak amplitude, and power spectra failed to reveal any consistent, statistically significant effect of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: reproduction ; teratology ; embryotoxicity ; growth ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Evaluations of reproductive and developmental toxicology, including teratology, were included as part of a broad screening study in Hanford Miniature swine (HMS) to detect effects of exposure to electric fields. One group (E) was exposed to a uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric field for 20 h/day, 7 days/week sham-exposed (SE) swine were housed in a separate, environmentally equivalent building. The first generation (F0) gilts were bred after 4 months of study; some were killed for teratologic assays at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced an F1 generation of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters (teratologic assays and live births) was similar in the E and SE groups. The F0 females, which produced the F1 generation, were bred again after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg. Malformation incidence in E litters (75%) was significantly greater than in SE litters (29%). No consistent differences in litter size, fetal mass, or mass of fetal organs were detected. The F1 gilts were bred at 18 months of age; defective offspring were found in significantly more of the E litters (71 %) than in SE litters (33%). These F1 females were bred again 10 months later and teratologic assays were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the E and SE groups (70% and 73%, respectively). There appears to be an association between chronic exposure to a strong electric field and developmental effects in swine, although the change in incidence of malformations between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it impossible to conclude unequivocally that there is a cause-and-effect relation.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 3 (1982), S. 341-347 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: immunology ; mice ; 60-Hz electric fields ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: We evaluated humoral and cellular functions of the immune system of Swiss-Webster mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 100 kV/m. No significant differences were observed in primary antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (precipitating antibody levels) between exposed (30 or 60 days) and control mice, nor were there significant changes in mitogen-stimulation response of spleen cells from mice similarly exposed for 90 or 150 days when compared to sham-exposed animals.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 3 (1982), S. 443-451 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: miniature swine ; ELF ; 60-Hz electric field ; behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: It has been shown that rats, given the choice, will spend more time out of a 60-Hz electric field than in it at field strengths ≥ 75 kV/m. This paper describes research to examine the relevance of these data to a different species, the pig. Miniature pigs that had been exposed to a 60-Hz electric field at 30 kV/m for 20 h/day, 7 days/week for as long as 6 months, were tested for their preference for the presence or absence of the field during a 23.5-h period. Similar to earlier results with rats, miniature pigs spent more time out of the electric field than in it during the sleeping period.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 4 (1983), S. 11-19 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric field ; bone growth ; osteotomy repair ; rats ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Rats were exposed to a 60-Hz electric field at an unperturbed field strength of 100 kV/m to determine its affect on bone growth and fracture repair. Exposure of immature male and female rats for 20 h/day for 30 days did not alter growth rate, cortical bone area, or medullary cavity area of the tibia. In another experiment, midfibular osteotomies were performed and the juvenile rats were exposed at 100 kV/m for 14 days. Evaluation by resistance to deformation and breaking strength indicated that fracture repair was not as advanced in the exposed animals as in the shamexposed animals. In another experiment measurements of resistance to deformation were made in adult rats at 16, 20, and 26 days after osteotmy. Fracture repair was slower in exposed compared to control animals at day 20 and, to a lesser extent, at day 16, but not at day 26.
    Additional Material: 6 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric fields ; hematology ; serum chemistry ; rats ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Numerous hematologic and serum chemistry variables were examined in rats exposed to unperturbed 60-Hz electric fields at 100 kV/m for 15, 30, 60, or 120 days. Each study was replicated once. Rigorous statistical evaluations of these data did not detect any consistent effect of the electric field for exposures of up to 120 days. It was, however, not unusual in any individual study to detect certain variables that were significantly different between the exposed and shamexposed animals. This emphasizes the need for replicate designs and appropriate statistical analyses when investigating chemical or physical insults that may have minimal influence on biologic function.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: 60-Hz electric fields ; rats ; behavior ; teratology ; growth ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A series of three experiments was performed to determine the effects of 30-day exposures to uniform 60-Hz electric fields (100 kV/m) on reproduction and on growth and development in the fetuses and offspring of rats. In the first experiment, exposure of females for 6 days prior to and during the mating period did not affect their reproductive performance, and continued exposure through 20 days of gestation (dg) did not affect the viability, size, or morphology of their fetuses. In the second experiment, exposure of the pregnant rat was begun on 0 dg and continued until the resulting offspring reached 8 days of age. In the third experiment, exposure began at 17 dg and continued through 25 days of postnatal life. In the second and third experiments, no statistically significant differences suggesting impairment of the growth or survival of exposed offspring were detected. In the second experiment, a significantly greater percentage of the exposed offspring showed movement, standing, and grooming at 14 days of age than among-sham-exposed offspring. There was a significant decrease at 14 days in the percentage of exposed offspring displaying the righting reflex in the second experiment and negative geotropism in the third experiment. These differences were all transient and were not found when the animals were tested again at 21 days of age. Evaluation of the reproductive integrity of the offspring of the second experiment did not disclose any deficits.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: Electric fields ; 60 Hz ; rats ; behavior ; gastrointestinal distress ; taste aversion ; behavior toxicolgy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A measure of taste-aversion (TA) learning was used in three experiments to 1) determine whether exposure to intense 60-Hz electric fields can produce TA learning in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and 2) establish a dose-response function for the behavior in question. In Experiment 1, four groups of eight rats each were distributed into one of two exposures (69 ± 5 kV/m or 133 ± 10 kV/m) or into one of two sham-exposure groups. Conditioning trials paired 0.1% sodium saccharin in water with 3 h of exposure to a 60-Hz electric field. Following five conditioning trials, a 20-min, two-bottle preference test between water and saccharin-flavored water failed to reveal TA conditioning in exposed groups. In Experiment 2, four groups of eight rats each (34 ± 2 kV/m or 133 ± 10 kV/m and two sham-exposed groups) were treated as before. Electric-field exposure had no effect on TA learning. Experiment 3 tested for a possible synergy between a minimal dose (for TA learning) of cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg) and 5 h of exposure to 133 ± 10 kV/m electric fields in a dark environment under conditions otherwise similar to those of Experiments 1 and 2. The results indicated no TA learning as reflected in the relative consumption of saccharin.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 1 (1980), S. 55-64 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: 60-Hz electric fields ; electrocardiogram (ECG) ; heart rate ; blood pressure ; vascular reactivity ; cold stress ; rats ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 or 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month, or 4 months of exposure. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements, made during exposure to a 100-kV/m electric field for one hour, revealed no significant differences between exposed and sham-exposed groups. In addition, physiologic reserve capacity, measured in rats subjected to low temperature after exposure to 100 kV/m for one month, showed that electric-field exposure had no significant effect on physiological response to cold stress. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of 1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; 2) minimizing steady-state microcurrents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and 3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 1 (1980), S. 117-129 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric fields ; 60 Hz ; biological effects ; dosimetry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Published and new data for grounded humans, swine, and rats exposed to vertical, 60-Hz electric fields are used to determine field strengths at the surfaces of the bodies and average components of induced-current density along the axes of the bodies. At the tops of the bodies, surface electric fields are increased (enhanced) over the unperturbed field strength present before the subjects entered the field by factors of 17,7, and 4 for humans, swine, and rats, respectively. For an unperturbed field strength of 10 kV/m, average induced axial current densities in the neck, chest, abdomen, and feet are: 550, 190, 250, and 2000 nA/cm2, respectively, for humans; 40, 13, 20, and 1100 nA/cm2, respectively, for swine; and 28, 16, 2, and 1400 nA/cm2, respectively, for rats. These data are used to show that the actual electric fields experienced by animals depend strongly on the shape of the body and its orientation relative to the electric field and ground plane. This fact must be taken into account if biological data obtained with laboratory animals are to be used for the assessment of possible hazards to humans exposed to 60-Hz electric fields.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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