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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Antibody response ; Curved bacilli ; Gastric pathology ; Helicobacter pylori
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcer and chronic active gastritis. The response to infection can be determined by measuring serum titers of anti-H.pylori antibodies. We compared antibody liters in 612 serum samples from 570 individuals considered at risk forH. pylori infection, 170 of them are control sera from 110 adults and 60 children with no gastric alterations. The study groups were 93 institutionalized mentally handicapped children, 40 heterosexual couples, 101 HIV-sero-positive patients, 86 patients with chronic renal failure and 40 individuals (20 adults and 20 children) with symptoms associated with gastritis or gastro duodenal ulcer disease. In the adult and child control groups, 33.5% and 11.6% of the individuals had circulating anti-H.pylori antibodies. Significantly more adults (80%) and children (75%) with gastric symptoms had detectable circulating antibody titers. Elevated titers were also found in institutionalized children and in adults with renal failure.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The aim of this study was toevaluate the prevalence of TT virus (TTV) in 107 hemodialysis patients and 100 healthy individuals. Sixteen percent of hemodialysis patients and 2% of the control population were TTV positive (P〈0.001). Sex, time on dialysis, transfusions, and alanine aminotransferase levels were not related to the presence of TTV DNA. TTV was more frequent in patients 50 to 70 (12/51) years of age and persisted in the serum of six of nine patients 8 months later. TTV was found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of all patients with chronic infection, and sequence variation was noted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of two patients. No relationship between TTV infection and hepatitis was observed. Viral persistence and nonparenteral transmission may be possible in patients on hemodialysis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The prevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies was studied in Granada, Spain, between January 1991 and November 1993 in 354 patients with suspected Lyme disease (group 1); in 50 patients either with syphilis (n=32) or without syphilis but with a positive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (n=18) (group 2); and in 150 healthy subjects (group 3). In addition, intrathecal antibody production was evaluated by EIA in CSF samples obtained from 117 patients in group 1. Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies were detected by EIA in 58 patients (16.4 %) in group 1, 29 (8.2 %) of whom were positive by Western blot. Intrathecal antibody production was detected in one patient. In group 2, 8 (16 %) patients had a positive EIA result, but none of these was confirmed by Western blot. Western blot was negative for all subjects in group 3. The results of this study indicate that anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies are not uncommon in our area, although Lyme disease is rare.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To determine the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and to relate genotype to viral load, genotyping and quantification of viral RNA were carried out in 35 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Subtype 1a was most prevalent (43%), followed by subtypes 1b (23%) and 3a (14%). Mean viral load (log HCV-RNA copies/ml) for subtypes 1b, 1a and 3a was 7.1 ± 1, 5.6 ± 1.1 and 4.1 ± 2.4, respectively. The presence of immunoglobulin M was related to the duration of hepatitis and genotype 1 to a more severe hepatic injury and a higher viral load. Differences observed in viral load for a single HCV subtype justify the need to quantify HCV-RNA prior to establishing antiviral therapy.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus, 1,993 sera (453 from healthy pregnant women, 491 from Moroccan subjects, 492 from blood donors, 321 from children, and 236 from intravenous drug users) were studied. IgG was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and positive results were confirmed by Western blot. The EIA detected antibodies in 3.96 % of the subjects (5.6 % of the Moroccans and drug users and 1.8 % of the children). Fifty-four percent of these results were confirmed by Western blot, 11.4 % were found to be negative, and 34.2 % indeterminate. The overall prevalence after confirmation by Western blot decreased to 2.15 %. When studying the Western blot pattern of the positive samples, 95 % showed antibodies to SG-3, 65 % to 8–5, and only 9.3 % to CKS fusion protein. In the indeterminate Western blots, the results for these proteins were 96.3 %, 62.9 %, and 37 %, respectively. When the epidemiological data were analysed, no statistically significant differences between women and men or between different age groups were found.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Seren von 710 Frauen, die über ihren Röteln-Immunstatus Bescheid wissen wollten, wurden mittels Hämagglutinationstest (HAI) und enzymgebundenen Immunassay (ELISA) geprüft. Bei der Mehrzahl der Frauen bestanden keine Krankheitssymptome. Die Fähigkeit zum Nachweis niedriger Antikörpertiter (1:8, 1:16) ist beim HAI-Test offensichtlich größer als bei dem Rubazym IgG-ELISA, wenn den Empfehlungen der Hersteller gefolgt wird. Wenn im HAI-Test Antikörpertiter von über 1:16 nachgewiesen wurden, war die Übereinstimmung zwischen den HAI- und IgG-Werten nahezu 100% ig. Zusätzlich wurde bei 17 schwangeren Frauen mit primärer Rötelninfektion und eindeutigen klinischen Symptomen eine Bestimmung des Gesamtantikörpertiters mit HAI sowie der spezifischen IgG- und IgM-Antikörper im Rubazym ELISA in aufeinanderfolgenden Serumproben vorgenommen. In einem Fall war der IgM-Nachweis eindeutig positiv, doch waren weder im HAI-Test noch im IgG-ELISA Antikörper nachzuweisen, wobei jeweils drei aufeinanderfolgende, in Abständen von 15 bis 20 Tagen entnommene Serumproben untersucht wurden. Es erscheint uns daher notwendig, bei jedem unklaren Fall von Rötelninfektion bei einer schwangeren Frau unabhängig davon, ob klinische Symptome bestehen oder nicht, eine Bestimmung der IgM-Antikörper (unter Ausschaltung des Rheumafaktors) durchzuführen.
    Notes: Summary A study has been carried out on the sera of 710 women who wished to know their state of rubella immunity using haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) techniques. The majority of the women presented no symptoms. The ability of HAI to detect low antibody levels (1:8, 1:16) appears to be greater than that of Rubazyme ELISA IgG, employing the recommendations of the manufacturers. The correlation between HAI and IgG values above HAI titres of 1:16 is nearly 100%. In an additional study of 17 primary infections in pregnant women with definite rubella symptoms, the total titre of antibodies was determined by HAI and IgG and specific IgM with ELISA Rubazyme in successive samples. In four cases, IgM was clearly positive and no increase in either HAI or IgG antibodies could be demonstrated over three successive samples taken at an interval of 15 to 20 days. Therefore, we consider it necessary to determine IgM antibodies (evaluating these in the absence of the rheumatoid factor) in every doubtful case occurring in pregnant women, irrespective of whether clinical signs are present or not.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In der asymptomatischen Phase der HIV-Infektion läßt sich das p24 Antigen (p24 Ag) meist nicht nachweisen; dies ist vor allem darauf zurückzuführen, daß es an anti-p24 Antikörper (p24 Ab) gebunden ist und mit ihnen Immunkomplexe bildet. Bei neun anti-HIV-1 positiven, asymptomatischen Patienten (Stadium II nach CDC Kriterien), die mit r-alpha-Interferon behandelt wurden, wurden Verlaufsbeobachtungen (7,5 +/- 0,5 Monate) durchgeführt. Basis- und Abschlußuntersuchungen auf p24 Ag Immunkomplexe (p24 Ag-IC), freies p24 Ag, p24 Ab, CD4 Zellzahlen, β2-Mikroglobulin, Properdin B Faktor und Komplementfraktionen C3 und C4 wurden dabei vorgenommen. In 55,5% der Proben fand sich p24 Ag-IC, in 5,5% freies p24 Ag. Die Beobachtung gleichbleibender oder ansteigender Werte von p24 Ag-IC im Serum hat möglicherweise prognostische Bedeutung. Unserer Ansicht nach kann der p24 Ab nicht als prognostischer Marker eingesetzt werden, wenn nicht zugleich die Bestimmung von p24 Ag-IC erfolgt.
    Notes: Summary p24 antigen (p24 Ag) is usually not found in patients in the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection, mainly because it is bound to anti-p24 antibodies (p24 Ab), with which it forms immune complexes. Nine asymptomatic patients positive for HIV-1 antibodies (stage II CDC criteria) treated with rα-interferon were followed (7.5+/-0.5 months), and a basal and final sample were tested for p24 Ag immune complexes (p24 Ag-IC), free p24 Ag, p24 Ab, CD4 count, β2-microglobulin, properdin B factor, and C3 and C4 complement fractions. p24 Ag-IC was detected in 55.5% of the samples, whereas free p24 Ag was detected in 5.5%. The finding of no change or an increase in p24 Ag-IC serum levels may be considered a prognostic marker. We believe that p24 Ab cannot be used as a prognostic marker unless p24 Ag-IC detection is simultaneously evaluated.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Epidemiology ; GB virus C subtype ; Polymerase chain reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract GB virus C subtype (GBV-C) seems to share the same routes of transmission as other parenteral transmitted viruses. We have evaluated the prevalence of GBV-C in 247 patients with potential risk for GBV-C infection and in 91 healthy blood donors. The presence of GBV-C RNA was examined by polymerase chain reaction in serum samples. The 23.6% of parenteral drug users were GBV-C positive, 36.3% of them were also HIV infected. Moreover, 22.5 and 19% of sera from patients with HBV and HCV chronic hepatitis, respectively, but without apparent risk factors seemed GBV-C infected. Finally, the 6% of patients on hemodialysis were also positive. Therefore, these results suggest that GBV-C is transmitted by parenteral routes but other non-parenteral routes shared with HBV or HCV must be considered.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 134 Patienten aus Nordost-Zaire wurden zur Bestimmung der Inzidenz der HIV-Typ-2-Infektion in einem afrikanischen Endemiegebiet auf HIV-1- und HIV-2-Serumantikörper untersucht. Damit wurden auch Kreuzreaktivität und mögliche Doppelinfektionen erfaßt. 65 (48,5%) der Serumproben waren positiv für HIV-1 und sechs (4,5%) für HIV-2. Zum Nachweis wurden spezifische Western Blots eingesetzt. In den Enzymimmunassays zum Nachweis von HIV-2 fand sich in 17 Proben Kreuzreaktivität mit HIV-1 (16,5%). Tests, die auf spezifische synthetische Peptide entsprechend den spezifischen Epitopen der menschlichen Immunschwäche-Viren aufgebaut sind, erwiesen sich als geeignet, Antikörper die gegen die beiden Viren gerichtet sind, in 42/47 Proben zu differenzieren (89,4%); in 5/47 Fällen (10,6%) war mit diesem Test eine Unterscheidung zwischen Doppelinfektion und Kreuzreaktivität nicht möglich. Wir gehen davon aus, daß möglicherweise für die HIV-Übertragung in unserer Studiengruppe die hohe Zahl von Sexualpartnern verantwortlich war.
    Notes: Summary To evaluate the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infections in an endemic African area, we have studied 134 patients from Northeast Zaire. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies to asses cross-reactivity or a possible double infection. Sixty five (48.5%) serum samples were reactive for HIV-1 and six (4.5%) for HIV-2 using specific Western blots. The enzyme immunoassays used to detect HIV-2 showed cross-reactivity with HIV-1 in 17 samples (16.5%). Tests based upon synthetic peptides corresponding to specific from human immunodeficiency viruses confirm their ability to discriminate antibodies directed against both viruses in 42/47 samples (89.4%); in 5/47 (10.6%) this test could not distinguish double infection from cross-reactivity. We suggest that the high number of sexual partners may be responsible for HIV transmission in our study group.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Wir fandenKlebsiella ozaenae nur bei sechs Frauen von insgesamt 30 Fällen (20 Frauen, zehn Männer) mit atrophischer Rhinitis. Diese Isolate wurden in Abständen von 15 Tagen dreimal bestätigt. Bei den verbleibenden 24 Patienten wurde eine breite Vielfalt von Mikroorganismen isoliert, dabei warProteus mirabilis am häufigsten.
    Notes: Summary We foundKlebsiella ozaenae in only six women of 30 patients (20 females, ten males) suffering from atrophic rhinitis. These isolates were confirmed three times at intervals of 15 days. In the remaining 24 patients a wide variety of microorganisms were isolated,Proteus mirabilis having the highest incidence.
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