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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; PROTECTION ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; MODEL ; TUMORS ; MICE ; PATIENT ; DNA ; IFN-GAMMA ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; cytokines ; antibodies ; antibody ; SWEDEN ; SURFACE ; VACCINE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CARCINOMAS ; CD8(+) ; immune response ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; IMMUNITY ; T-LYMPHOCYTES ; vaccination ; REJECTION ; CANCER PATIENTS ; CTL ; INTERFERON-GAMMA ; EFFECTOR ; GM-CSF ; HER-2/neu ; IMMUNIZATION ; ABSENCE ; CYTOKINE ; tumor immunity ; ANTI-ERBB-2 ANTIBODY ; anti-tumor immunity ; DNA vaccine ; ERBB-2 DNA ; PROTOONCOGENE
    Abstract: HER-2/neu (HER-2) is a cell surface proto-oncogene that is often overexpressed in carcinomas. Passive administration of anti-HER-2 antibodies in breast cancer patients has achieved promising results, but less is known about the role of antibodies in active immunization. We asked whether B cells/ antibodies are needed for tumor immunity induced by plasmid (HER-2 and GM-CSF) immunization. HER-2 specific tumor immunity relied completely on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. IFN-gamma, and to a lesser extent IL-4, seemed to be crucial cytokines during tumor rejection. Protection was associated with production of anti-HER-2 IgG antibodies in B cell competent mice. After immunization, however, B cell-deficient mice rejected HER-2-expressing tumors as efficiently as control littermates. We conclude that T cells are the main effector cells in DNA vaccine induced immunity against HER-2 and that anti HER-2 antibodies are not necessary to elicit a protective anti tumor immune response in this model. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14750178
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Blood flow velocity ; Doppler signals ; Fast Fourier transform ; Spectral analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A simple method for the improvement of the definition of the instantaneous spectrum estimate of Doppler signal is proposed. A short review of the stochastical properties of FFT spectrum estimates is presented. This review allowed us to develop a concept of the ‘estimation noise’ as an interpretation of the stochastic uncertainty of the estimation. This, in turn, permitted us to propose a method of adaptive filtering of spectral estimation to minimise the effects of the ‘estimation noise’. Proposed filtering in the frequency domain corresponds to a procedure known as smoothing of the estimate. Two different smoothing procedures are presented: classical, linear smoothing and nonlinear, homomorphic smoothing. The performances of the smoothed spectrum estimate are theoretically and experimentally studied, showing that their effectiveness depends mostly on the shape of the Doppler spectrum. Although smoothing always reduces the spectral resolution, the important limitation of the variance of estimation can be achieved without meaningful deterioration of the resolution in our application. Thus, the proposed procedures may sensibly improve the accuracy of the relationship between the shape of the spectrum and the flow parameters. As a result, more exact determination of flow characteristics such as stability or maximum velocity, even in cases of low signal-to-noise power ratio, should be possible.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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