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  • 1
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has previously been reported that porous-coated root form endosseous dental implants, became well integrated when used in the traditional 2-stage surgical approach. In this study, the placement of the implant in a 1-stage (non-submerged)technique was to be explored. Implants were placed in the mandibles of dogs, and 2 designs were used differing only in that one (experimental) had a 3mm transgingival extension, permitting it to be exposed lo the oral cavity from the outset. 12 (3 per animal) non-submerged implants were placed on I side of 4 beagle dogs and 12 control (submerged) implants were placed contralaterally. All implants were allowed to heal for 6 weeks, after which histological preparations were made. 2 of 12 non-submerged implants were lost due to post-operative complications: otherwise, all implants healed uneventfully. Histomorphometric analysis revealed bone-implant contact, as assessed by absolute bone contact (ABC) and contact length fraction (CLF). to be greater for the submerged design, suggesting that bone healing may be delayed with the non-submerged approach. As well. at this early stage of healing, for both implant designs, ABC and CLF were significantly greater on proximal than on buccal and lingual aspects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have previously suggested that altering the height of the porous-coat segment of a partially porous-coated TiAl6V4 endosseous dental implant would affect the degree of crestal bone loss occurring during implant function by changing the patterns of stress transfer. This conclusion arose from the analysis of data from several different experiments and lacked a direct intra-animal comparison. In the present study we have compared two implant designs varying only in the extent to which they were porous-coated. With one design (type A) the coronal 1.8 mm of the implant root had a machined surface while the remainder of its length was porous-coated with TiAl6V4 beads. The other design (type B) had all but the coronal-most 0.75 mm porous-coated. Two implants of each type were placed in each of 4 dogs and the sites allowed to heal for 4 weeks before re-entry and prosthesis attachment. Monthly the implant-supported bridges were removed and radiographs exposed of each implant using a special film holder connected separately to each implant. These radiographs were analyzed for crestal bone loss using both direct visual and computer-assisted techniques. The results showed that bone remodelled to the machined surface-to-porous coat junction for type B implants and achieved a steady state by 12 weeks of function, whereas a longer time was required to achieve this state with type A implants. Significantly more bone loss occurred with the type A design, and this difference was detectable as early as after the first month of function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Biomaterials 6 (1995), S. 267-282 
    ISSN: 1045-4861
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Crestal bone loss is observed around various designs of dental implants. A possible cause of this bone loss is related to the stresses acting on periimplant bone. To investigate the relationship between stress state and bone loss, two-dimensional finite element models corresponding to bucco-lingual and mesio-distal sections of canine mandibles with one of two designs of porous-coated dental implants were analyzed. A fully porous-coated design consisting of a solid Ti6A14V core had a porous coating over the entire outer surface of the implant component, while a partially porous-coated design had the porous coating over the apical two-thirds of the implant surface only. Occlusal forces with axial and transverse components were assumed to act on the implant with interface bonding and effective force transfer at all porous coat-bone interfaces and no bonding for the non-porous-coated regions. The results of the analysis indicated that at most implant aspects (buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal), the equivalent stresses in crestal bone adjacent to the coronal-most, non-porous-coated zone of the partially porous-coated implants were lower than around the most coronal region of the fully porous-coated implants. The region of lower stresses around the partially porous-coated implants corresponded to observed areas of crestal bone loss in animal studies, suggesting that crestal bone loss in this case was due to bone disuse atrophy. A number of parameters of the finite element models were varied to determine the effect on the resulting stress fields and, therefore, possible long-term bone remodeling. Based on differences in observed bone structures by histological examination and results of finite element analyses with fully and partially porous-coated implants, an equivalent stress equal to 1.6 MPa was determined to be sufficient to avoid bone loss due to disuse atrophy in the canine mandibular premolar region. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0736-0266
    Keywords: Bone ingrowth ; Porous implants ; Bone modeling ; Life and Medical Sciences
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Porous coated canine femoral hip replacement implants were evaluated for biological fixation by bone ingrowth and the effect of the extent of porous coating on bone modeling. The Co-Cr alloy implants were either fully porous coated or coated only on the proximal 40% of the stem. Two implants of each type were studied 9, 16, and 36 months after surgery. Implant fixation and bone modeling were assessed radiographically throughout the implant periods and histologically after the test animals were killed. All 12 implants appeared stably fixed within the femur and were bone-ingrown in the porous region. Radiographic features such as proximal medial and anterior cortical thinning, proximal cancellous bone hypertrophy, and new endosteal bone formation near the stem tip were noted within the first postoperative year, with no appreciable change thereafter. The extent of proximal cortical thinning varied from virtually none to as much as 40%, being more prominent with the proximally coated implants at 16 months and with the fully coated implants at 36 months. Of consistent note was cancellous hypertrophy at the junction of porous and smooth implant surfaces with proximally coated implants and new endosteal bone formation and ingrowth at the stem tip of fully coated implants. These results indicate that the proximally porous-coated implant design causes increased proximal stress transfer, but this does not necessarily preclude proximal cortical resorption.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 3 (1992), S. 333-344 
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Composite bone cements incorporating one of four different filler particles (hydroxyapatite powder, graphite flakes or one of two types of rubber-modified acrylic particles) were made and the fracture toughness properties (K lc) and curing characteristics (peak curing temperature and cement extrudability while in the doughy state) assessed. The results showed that all filler types studied resulted in significant increases in fracture toughness while maintaining acceptable working and curing characteristics of the composite cements. The increase inK lc was related to the amount of filler incorporation. The observed dependence of the change inK lc on the wt% filler could be rationalized through the application of proposed mechanisms for toughening of particle-reinforced polymers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Bone remodeling due to stress-shielding has been studied using a model system consisting of metal-polymer laminated fixation plates securely fixed to canine femurs. The plate stiffness was controlled by varying the ratio of metal facing to polymer core thickness in the laminate design while secure fixation to bone was achieved by providing a porous bone interfacing surface for the ingrowth of bone from the periosteal surface. Observations of laterally and medially placed plates indicated resorption in the area of the periosteal and endosteal bone surfaces respectively, for the higher stiffness composite plates used. The results indicate that plate stiffness greater than approximately 70 GPa (axial) and 6 N m2 (flexural) will result in extensive bone remodeling in the canine femur after a six month implantation period.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The successful use of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on Ti-alloy implants for implant-to-bone fixation requires strong adherence of the ceramic coating to the underlying metal substrate. In this study, the metal-ceramic interface was evaluated using mechanical, chemical, and structural characterization methods. Evaluations of an HA-coated Ti-6A1-4V implant system using a modified short bar technique for interfacial fracture toughness determination revealed relatively low fracture toughness values. Additionally, conventional tensile bond strength testing indicated much lower values than previously reported. Using high resolution electron spectroscopic imaging, evidence of chemical bonding was revealed at the plasmasprayed HA/Ti-6AI-4V interface, though bonding was primarily due to mechanical interlock at the interface. This study illustrates the benefits of, and the need for, a multilevel approach to evaluate and improve these plasma-sprayed ceramicme tai subst rate interfaces.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The metal/ceramic interface that constitutes an important part of the plasma-sprayed HA-coated Ti-6Al-4V system may, in fact, represent the “weak link” in the implant design. A post-plasma-spray heat treatment to enhance chemical bonding at the metal/ceramic interface and, hence, improve the mechanical properties (interface fracture toughness and tensile coating adhesion strength) of the plasma-sprayed implant system does show promise. In preliminary heat treatment studies, however, any improvements realized were lost due to the chemical instability of the coating in a moistureladen environment, with a concomitant loss in bonding properties. This deterioration in properties appears to be related to environmentally assisted crack growth as influenced by processing conditions. Still, an ability to improve HA/Ti-6Al-4V bonding through enhanced diffusion bonding was demonstrated, warranting further heat treatment studies involving atmosphere control during processing. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: An endodontic implant model system was used to compare the effect of implant design on stabilization in bone. Specifically a porous-surfaced design was compared to conventional threaded and smoothtapered endodontic implant designs. All implants were placed in immediate function thereby assessing the effect of early limited movement on the fixation achieved. A total of eighty-three endodontic implants were inserted in the mandibles of six adult mongrel dogs. Animals were sacrificed immediately after implantation and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Implants were evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination and after animal sacrifice by pull-out tests of the implant from the tissues, SEM examination of the pulled-out implants and, finally, histology. The pull-out test results indicated increasing shear strength with implantation time for the porous-surfaced implants in contrast to the gradual loss of fixation for the threaded implants and the continuous low shear strength for the smooth implants. Histological studies and SEM examination indicated the reason for these changes. Smooth implants became encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue from early post-implantation time periods. Threaded implants, although initially mechanically interlocked with bone, developed a fibrous connective tissue capsule that gradually thickened with time until, by 6 months, little mechanical interlock of bone and implant was present. It was assumed that this fibrous capsule thickening was caused by implant movement. The porous-surfaced implants, however, became stabilized by bone ingrowth and showed more extensive bone formation within the surface pores with time. It is concluded that for implants that are made functional immediately after implantation, as in this study, porous-surfaced implants can become strongly fixed by bone ingrowth, in contrast to conventional threaded or smooth-surfaced designs, thus presenting a more favourable long term prognosis.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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