Polymer and Materials Science
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
An endodontic implant model system was used to compare the effect of implant design on stabilization in bone. Specifically a porous-surfaced design was compared to conventional threaded and smoothtapered endodontic implant designs. All implants were placed in immediate function thereby assessing the effect of early limited movement on the fixation achieved. A total of eighty-three endodontic implants were inserted in the mandibles of six adult mongrel dogs. Animals were sacrificed immediately after implantation and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Implants were evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination and after animal sacrifice by pull-out tests of the implant from the tissues, SEM examination of the pulled-out implants and, finally, histology. The pull-out test results indicated increasing shear strength with implantation time for the porous-surfaced implants in contrast to the gradual loss of fixation for the threaded implants and the continuous low shear strength for the smooth implants. Histological studies and SEM examination indicated the reason for these changes. Smooth implants became encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue from early post-implantation time periods. Threaded implants, although initially mechanically interlocked with bone, developed a fibrous connective tissue capsule that gradually thickened with time until, by 6 months, little mechanical interlock of bone and implant was present. It was assumed that this fibrous capsule thickening was caused by implant movement. The porous-surfaced implants, however, became stabilized by bone ingrowth and showed more extensive bone formation within the surface pores with time. It is concluded that for implants that are made functional immediately after implantation, as in this study, porous-surfaced implants can become strongly fixed by bone ingrowth, in contrast to conventional threaded or smooth-surfaced designs, thus presenting a more favourable long term prognosis.
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