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  • 1
    Keywords: RISK ; chemotherapy ; MUTATION CARRIERS ; METAANALYSIS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCI ; COMMON VARIANTS ; 14Q24.1 RAD51L1 ; IDENTIFIES 3
    Abstract: Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95% CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09-1.18), P = 6.0x10(-10); P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8x10(-4)). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P〈0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03); and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365) and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7). In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity between ER+ lobular and ER+ IDC tumors. These data provide evidence for overlapping, but distinct etiological pathways within ER+ breast cancer between morphological subtypes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24743323
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    FEBS Letters 1 (1968), S. 206-208 
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 210 (1966), S. 631-632 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] It seemed of interest to determine how the nucleotides varied hour by hour for the first few hours after injections since Shull4 has shown that the hepatic ATP-level falls to about 20 per cent of the control value 2-3 h after ethionine injection. Accordingly, female albino rats, of initial ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-5775
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Small-angle X-ray diffraction data has been collected from 99 `core-cut' breast tissue specimens representing a number of different pathologies. Data in the range 75–1390 Å have been compared with controls from patients with no breast disease. Bessel functions and Bragg maxima resulting from the fibrillar structure of collagen have been identified. The Bragg maxima indexed onto a 649 Å lattice. Systematic differences in the intensities and D-spacings between the collagen of malignant, benign and normal tissue groups have been clearly demonstrated and quantified. These differences appear to be due to a significantly lower structural order within the malignant tissues. Possible explanations for this are discussed and the potential for utilizing this observation in cancer diagnosis is considered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2303
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Routine audit of breast fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens and aspirator inadequate ratesIn an attempt to improve the quality of the breast FNA specimens we instigated a continuing audit of this procedure in this hospital. All FNAs since 1990 have had the following recorded: mode of aspiration, e.g. freehand or image guided, patient presentation (screening or symptomatic), patient diagnostic category, cytological diagnosis and final histological diagnosis. Aspirator performance was assessed by means of the inadequate aspiration rate (IR) of FNAs performed on patients with a final diagnosis of cancer (FDC) and diagnostic category A patients (clinically or radiologically malignant lesions). An ongoing annual review of the performance of all the aspirators was undertaken, all of whom received individual feedback. Counselling and further training were offered where indicated by poor performance. Over the period 1990–1995 a total of 13 537 FNAs were performed by 27 aspirators. The IR on category A and FDC cases over this period was 16.0% and 18.1%. The best performance achieved by an aspirator in a calendar year was an IR of 3.6% with no inadequate specimens in either FDC or category A lesions, and the best performance over the entire period was an average IR of 11.75% and 14.25% for FDC and category A groups, respectively. The overall IR on category A patients ranged from 15.9% to 23.8% and on FDC cases from 12.2% to 21.7%. There was a significant improvement in individual junior aspirator performance when their first year was compared with their last year on the unit. In some cases a deterioration in intra-aspirator performance was observed, from an IR of 6% to 33%. The overall IR rate of the unit remained stable for FDC patients, 15.5% in 1990 compared with 15.1% in 1995. This appeared to be largely due to a high proportion of the aspirations being performed by experienced personnel with consistent IRs. However, concealed within the overall rate there were some poor performers who benefited from counselling and/or further training. These results indicate an important role for audit in identifying poor aspirators who benefit from targeted training and advice, thereby improving the quality of FNA specimens, and ultimately patient care.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Cytopathology 11 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2303
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2303
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An audit of ‘equivocal’ (C3) and ‘suspicious’ (C4) categories in fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast We have audited the frequency of use and outcome of the ‘equivocal/atypia probably benign’ (C3) and ‘suspicious of malignancy’ (C4) category for breast cytology in our Unit. A total of 14 935 cytological specimens were reported by at least one of the three pathologists with a special interest in breast pathology, according to five categories of the NHSBSP guidelines for cytology reporting, 1992; 3.7% (555 cases) and 3.9% (587 cases) of cases were classified as equivocal (C3) and suspicious (C4), respectively, giving a total rate (C3 + C4) of 7.6%. Of the C3 cases, 68% were subsequently benign and 32% were malignant. Of the C4 cases, 19% were subsequently benign and 81% malignant. The commonest benign lesions in both categories were fibroadenomas (7.6% of C3 and 19.8% of C4), fibrocystic change (14.3% of C3 and 12.5% of C4), radial scars (6.2% of C3 and 10.4% of C4) and papillomas (6.2% of C3 and 6.3% of C4). Of the malignant lesions (particularly those classified as C3), a high proportion were low grade or special type cancers. The categories of atypia probably benign (C3) and suspicious of malignancy (C4) in breast cytology provide a strategy for classification of problematic or uncertain cases; this maintains the predictive value of the benign (C2) and malignant (C5) categories, and allows separation of these difficult cases into clinically useful groups with differing probabilities of malignancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aims:  The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme has proposed five categories for reporting breast needle core biopsies. The majority of cores are reported as benign (B1), normal (B2) or malignant (B5). The predictive value of the two borderline categories suspicious of malignancy (B4) and lesion of uncertain malignant potential (B3) was studied.Methods and results:  Over a 2-year period a total of 3822 breast needle core biopsies were performed, with 2997 from symptomatic patients and 825 from women undergoing mammographic screening, including 43 B4 reports (40 patients) and 120 B3 reports (116 lesions in 115 patients). The frequencies of B4 (2.5% versus 0.7%) and B3 cores (7.3% versus 2.0%) were both higher in screening than in symptomatic patients. B4 was most commonly used for small fragments of atypical cells separate from the main core or focal atypical intraductal proliferations. The criteria for calling a core B3 were: atypical intraductal epithelial proliferations (including foci that in excision specimens would be classified as atypical ductal hyperplasia), lobular neoplasia, radial scar, papillary lesion, fibroepithelial lesion with cellular stroma and spindle cell proliferations. Excision biopsies were performed in 39 patients with B4 core and 96 with B3 core. Invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ was seen in 33 of the patients with B4 (85%) and in 29 of those with B3 cores (25%). Some categories of B3 core were associated with a higher rate of malignancy (40% for atypical intraductal epithelial proliferations and 46% for lobular neoplasia).Conclusions:  The positive predictive value for carcinoma is high following a B4 core (86%). The lesion should be excised, but definitive cancer treatment is not appropriate. In some cases a definite diagnosis of malignancy can be made on repeat core. The B3 group is more heterogeneous and has a lower rate of malignancy on further biopsy (25%). The majority of B3 lesions require excision. All these patients should be discussed at multidisciplinary meetings.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Anti-CD44 MoAb IM7 induced the loss of CD44 from mouse leucocytes thereby inhibiting leucocyte migration and joint inflammation in murine arthritis. Thus, targeting CD44 with MoAb may have potential for the treatment of patients with inflammatory joint diseases. Expression of CD44 by peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) leucocytes from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was compared and the ability of IM7 to modulate this expression determined. RASF lymphocytes showed increased CD44 expression compared with those in PB indicative of an activated phenotype. As inflammatory SF did not up-regulate CD44 expression on PB lymphocytes, the increased CD44 expression by SF lymphocytes was a result of the selective homing of CD44high cells to the synovium rather than an effect of the synovial environment. RASF granulocytes showed reduced CD44 expression compared with those in PB, again indicative of an activated phenotype. However, this reduction could be induced on PB granulocytes following culture with inflammatory SF and was inhibited by anti-TNF-α MoAb, implying that soluble factors in inflammatory SF such as TNF-α induced granulocyte activation and CD44 loss. IM7 induced the loss of CD44 from lymphocytes (both from PB and SF) and granulocytes in vitro, but was subsequently re-expressed after 24 h culture in the absence of the MoAb. This loss of CD44 was blocked by serine- and metalloprotease inhibitors implying that IM7 induced the proteolytic cleavage of CD44 by a mechanism similar to that reported for the loss of CD44 from PMA-activated granulocytes. Furthermore, IM7-treated CD44low lymphocytes showed reduced adherence to both an endothelial cell line and RA synovial fibroblasts in vitro. The unique ability of IM7 to reduce CD44 expression by lymphocytes suggests that it could prevent lymphocyte extravasation and synovial infiltration in RA as previously reported in murine arthritis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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