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  • 1
    ISSN: 0168-9002
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract From the optical spectra the energy levels of the Cr3+ ion in LaAlO3 were determined. In the cubic field approximation we obtained with the parametersDq=1750cm-1,B=661 cm-1, andC=2908 cm-1 a good agreement between the calculated and measured energies. For higher Cr3+ concentrations the fluorescence spectrum of the exchange-coupled first nearest (1N) Cr3+ pairs was separated from the vibronic fluorescence spectrum of the single ions by selective excitation. From the experimental data the energy level scheme of the 1N pairs is constructed for the states ¦4 A 2·4 A 2〉 and ¦4 A 2·2 E〉. In the ground state the pairs are ordered antiferromagnetically due to an isotropic exchange interaction with an exchange integralJ=(−68 ± 1) cm-1. From the fluorescence decay the intrinsic lifetimes of the fluorescent states of the single ions, the 1N and the 2N pairs were determined to be equal to (86± 4) msec, (1.75± 0.25) msec, and (31 ± 5) msec respectively. The fluorescence decay shows an energy transfer between the single ions and the pairs.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 24 (1976), S. 333-341 
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The optical spectrum of the exchange coupled first nearest neighbour Cr3+ pairs in ruby was studied by absorption, fluorescence and excitation spectroscopy. It was analysed by means of the group theoretical considerations given in part I [1]. The analysis could be verified by measuring the Zeeman effect in fields up to 150 KG. The Zeeman splitting deviates considerably from that of pure spin states even for the orbital singulet of the pair ground state. The exchange integrals of the ground state are found to beJ=−115 cm−1 andj=−0.7 cm−1.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-5196
    Keywords: Key words Denial of pregnancy ; Neonaticide ; Expert appraisement (legal responsibility) ; Schlüsselwörter Schwangerschaftsverdrängung ; Kindstötung ; Begutachtung (Schuldfähigkeit)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei der Schwangerschaftsverdrängung wird eine bestehende Gravidität erst sehr spät erkannt, nicht selten tatsächlich erst durch die Geburt. Von rechtsmedizinischer Bedeutung sind Fälle mit einer Tötung des Neugeborenen. Anhand einer Kasuistik wird ausführlich auf einige wesentliche Begleitcharakteristika der Schwangerschaftsverdrängung eingegangen, die bei der gutachterlichen Bewertung bzw. der strafrechtlichen Beurteilung von Bedeutung sind: Subjektive Schwangerschaftsbeschwerden (Übelkeit/Erbrechen) und typische Schwangerschaftszeichen (Gewichtszunahme/Veränderung der Körperform/Kindsbewegungen) können von einer Schwangeren nicht adäquat wahrgenommen oder mit nahezu wahnhafter Gewißheit uminterpretiert werden (Rationalisierung körperbezogener Symptome). Bei der Nichtwahrnehmung der Schwangerschaft kann auch das Fortbestehen eines menstruationsähnlichen Blutungsmusters eine gewichtige Rolle spielen. Im Gegensatz zu anderen europäischen Ländern ist in der Bundesrepublik nach wie vor eine strafrechtliche Ungleichbehandlung durch die Privilegierung der nichtehelichen Kindesmutter nach Kindstötung gültig (§ 217 StGB): Wie bereits von Gerchow in den 50er Jahren gefordert, sollte die rechtliche Sonderstellung nicht länger nur mit dem Familienstand begründet, sondern endlich auch auf die Tatbegehungen an ehelich geborenen Kindern ausgedehnt werden. Zum Wegfall von § 217 StGB im Zuge des 6. Strafrechtsreformgesetzes vgl. Addendum am Ende des Textes.
    Notes: Abstract In the case of denial of pregnancy, an existing pregnancy is first recognized very late, not too infrequently, actually at delivery. With regard to the medico-legal significance, cases of neonaticide are relevant. Based on a case study, several important accompanying characteristics of denial of pregnancy will be thoroughly considered which are crucial concerning the expert appraisement or criminal sentencing: subjective pregnancy complaints (nausea, vomiting) and typical signs of pregnancy (weight gain, changes in body shape, fetal movement) might not be perceived adequately by the pregnant woman or could, with almost delusional certainty be misinterpreted (rationalization of somatic symptoms). The continuation of menstruation-like bleeding patterns can also play an important role in the non-perception of the pregnancy. In contrast to other European countries, in Germany a legal disparity still applies through the rights of the single mother after neonaticide (§ 217 German Criminal Code): as already demanded by Gerchow in the 50s, this special legal advantage should no longer be based on marital status, but finally expanded to the married mother of a newborn. During the preparation of the manuscript we became aware of the fact that in the process of the 6th reform of the German Criminal Code, § 217 was completely abolished with the justification (among others) that this paragraph no longer reflected current views. As a result of this, in the future in Germany the corresponding crimes will be subsumed in accordance with § 213 of the German Criminal Code (diminished capacity of manslaughter). At the same time however, the penalties under § 213 were increased (minimum sentence in the future 1 year prison term, rather than the previous 6 months, maximum sentence 10 years, rather than 5 years as it was previously). The evaluation of the question of whether with this change the special circumstances of the mother in the case of neonaticide is really adequately taken into consideration or whether it would be more appropriate, as suggested in this work, to adhere to the special facts of the case of neonaticide also extending at the same time the privileges to crimes committed against neonates by married mothers (and in this manner, putting married and single criminals on an equal status) will have to be answered by future scientific investigations and publications. Independent of the changes in the Criminal Code (valid from 1 April 1998), the multiple, real problems encountered in medical expert appraisement and sentencing with regard to assessment of evidence in the case of neonaticide after denial of pregnancy remain.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Luminescence 18-19 (1979), S. 170-174 
    ISSN: 0022-2313
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Platinumsilicide Schottky diodes on p-Si substrates structured with a dry-etched lamellar grating were fabricated. The grating periods Λ were 3, 4, and 5 μm, and the grating amplitude h ranged from 300 to 1100 nm. Measurements of the optical response Y for TE and TM polarized light were made. A strong dependence of the detector sensitivity on the polarization of the radiation was observed. Enchancement of the responsivity up to 70% was found compared to an unstructured reference sample. Calculations based on an optical model which takes into account the change in absorption due to the grating were made. The results show good agreement with the experimental data. © 1994 American Institute of Physics.
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