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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A quantitative immunohistochemical study was performed of the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP, a soluble protein localized in neurons and neuroendocrine cells as well as in some non-nervous cells) and ubiquitin along the rat epididymis. In the ductuli efferentes, PGP immunoreaction was observed in the whole cytoplasm of some columnar cells; a smaller number of columnar cells showed ubiquitin immunoreactivity with limited apical and basal cytoplasmic localization. In the proximal caput epididymidis, the whole cytoplasm of all columnar cells showed PGP immunoreactivity, ubiquitin immunostaining was negative in this region. In the middle and distal caput epididymidis and the distal cauda, the apical cytoplasm of some columnar cells and the whole cytoplasm of some basal cells showed immunoreactivity to PGP. In these regions, immunoreactivity to ubiquitin was positive in the supranuclear cytoplasm of some columnar cells but not in the basal cells. No immunoreactivity to PGP or ubiquitin was detected in the corpus epididymis and the proximal cauda. Double immunostaining revealed that all the epididymal ubiquitin immunoreactive cells were also PGP immunoreactive, whereas most PGP immunoreactive cells did not immunoreact to ubiquitin. In ubiquitin-PGP immunoreactive cells, the site of the PGP immunoreaction differed from that of the ubiquitin immunoreaction. PGP-ubiquitin immunoreactive cells also seemed to be immunoreactive to anti-AE1/AE3 keratin antibodies. The spermatozoal heads were immunoreactive to PGP antibodies in the epididymal regions from proximal caput to distal cauda but not in the ductuli efferentes. The findings suggest that non-ubiquitinated PGP immunoreactive proteins are secreted in the epididymis, mainly in the proximal caput, and attach to spermatozoa.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The biogenic amines present in the carotid body Type 1 cells of two avian species (Japanese quail and chicken) were identified, by microspectrofluorometry of formaldehyde-induced fluorescence, as dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine respectively. These and other cytochemical properties establish the cells as members of the APUD series. Grafts of the neural rhombencephalic primordium from 6 to 10-somite quail embryos were implanted in the appropriate region of chick embryos of the same age. After up to 11 days incubation the carotid bodies of the host were freeze-dried and treated with hot formaldehyde vapour. The carotid body Type 1 cells in the chick host were identified, by the presence of dopamine and the absence of 5-HT, as cells from the quail neural crest. The dopamine phenotype in cells of quail origin thus provides a cytochemical marker which may be used for other allograft experiments. The present work confirms earlier findings, using a biological (nuclear chromatin) marker, which showed the avian carotid body to be of neural crest origin.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of a bombesin-like immunoreactive peptide in the avian gastro-intestinal tract was analysed by combined radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. Radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts showed that the largest quantities of bombesin-like immunoreactivity were present in the proventriculus (64.5±6.0 pmol/g) with smaller but still considerable amounts in the gizzard (40.0±6.0 pmol/g). Immunocytochemically the extractable bombesin-like immunoreactivity was localised in numerous endocrine cells. These, in the proventriculus, were found mainly in the deeper layers of the mucosa. Further study of these cells by the semi-thin/thin technique revealed the presence of characteristic secretory granules. The functional name BN is proposed for this cell type.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary VIP-like immunoreactive material is present in the female reproductive tract, with a distinct pattern of distribution. The highest concentrations of extractable material and immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in the cervix and vagina. In the cervix these fibres were seen below the surface epithelium and around cervical glands as well as in association with blood vessels and smooth muscle bundles. In the vagina the nerve fibres were most abundant in the superficial regions of the lamina propria. Scattered fibres were also present in the rest of the uterus and in the fallopian tubes. Chromatographic evidence indicates that this VIP-like material is of a similar molecular size to that extracted from other organs. Possible roles for VIP in the regulation of myometrial activity and of cervical and vaginal dilation and secretion are proposed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The development of substance P (SP) and VIP containing structures of the quail and chick guts was studied by immunocytochemistry. The appearance of VIP and substance P nerves follows a rostrocaudal pattern from day 9 in the quail and day 10 in the chick embryo. Immunoreactive fibres are first visible in the oesophagus and at 12 days they extend over the whole length of the intestine. VIP and substance P ganglionic cells are first localized in the foregut (day 9 for VIP containing neurons and day 13 for SP ones) and observed in the mid- and hind-gut just before hatching. Transplantation on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of fragments of various parts of the digestive tract were carried out to see whether in such circumstances the pattern of VIP and SP containing nerves was comparable to normal. The explants contained numerous SP and VIP immunofluorescent nerve fibres. In addition, cell bodies with VIP and SP immunoreactivity appeared brightly fluorescent in the enteric ganglia of the graft showing that these peptidergic nerve cells belong to the intrinsic innervation of the gut.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary VIP- and substance P-like immunoreactivities were found in considerable concentrations (VIP: 17.3±4.8 pmol/g, mean ± SEM; substance P:11.1±1.8 pmol/g) in the uveal portion of the guinea pig eye.d Immunocytochemistry localised these two regulatory peptides to nerve fibres found principally in a plexus in the iris (substance P) and in an extensive network surrounding the blood vessels of the choroid (VIP). A remarkable anatomical demarcation of the two types of peptide-containing nerves was established by the staining of substance P-containing nerves, which stops at the level of the ciliary body. This uveal area is known to be involved in the ocular responses to nociceptive stimuli. At the ultrastructural level, immunoreactivity for both peptides was localised to distinct subpopulations of p-type nerves, distinguishable by the size of their large dense-cored vesicles. Those immunoreactive for VIP were significantly larger (p〈0.0005) than those immunoreactive for substance P (95±7 nm and 82±9 nm respectively; mean ± SD). Interruption of the trigeminal pathway produced a remarkable decrease of substance P immunoreactivity in the anterior portion of the uvea (9.1±1.5 pmol/g, mean ± SEM, control; 5.3±1.3 pmol/g, denervated), but not of VIP immunoreactivity in the choroid. Following colchicine treatment, VIP-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were localised in the choroid. The separate anatomical localisations and distributions of the two uveal peptides appear to be related to their different origins and functional roles in the response of the eye to noxious stimuli.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The three-dimensional distribution of the peptide-containing invervation in the human intestinal mucosa was studied by fluorescence immunohistochemistry on whole-mount mucosal preparations. An extensive VIP-immunoreactive nerve supply was demonstrated at all levels, but was markedly increased in density in the distal intestine, where it formed a particularly rich network in close contact with the luminal epithelium. In contrast, substance P-containing nerve fibres formed a looser and evenly distributed innervation at all levels. The muscularis mucosae was richly supplied by VIP-and substance P-containing fibres. Met-enkephalin immunoreactivity was confined to a few scattered nerve bundles running in the muscularis mucosae and around the bottom of epithelial crypts.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary An immunocytochemical technique, using l-tryptophan enhancement and paraformaldehyde fixation, has been successfully applied for the demonstration of serotonin-containing neurons in the human enteric nervous system. Throughout the intestine, serotonin-immunoreactive nerves were mainly detected in the myenteric plexus and, to a smaller extent, in the submucous plexus, while hardly any nerve fibres were seen in the mucosa. This approach provides a useful tool for the investigation of neuropathological conditions of the gut.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Motilin-immunoreactivity has been localized by two electron immunocytochemical techniques, using goldlabelled protein A or IgG as second layer, in a specific type of endocrine cell scattered in the epithelium of human and canine upper small intestine. The motilin (M) cell is characterized by relatively small (180 nm in man; 200 nm in the dog), solid granules with homogeneous core and closely applied membrane, round in man, round to irregularly-shaped in the dog. Perinuclear microfilaments are prominent in human motilin cells.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neurofilaments, part of the cytoskeletal network, and neuron specific enolase, a major enzyme in glycolysis, are both present in central and peripheral neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100, on the other hand, are soluble proteins which are found exclusively in the supportive cells of the nervous system, i.e. the glial cells. Examination was made, using immunocytochemistry, of all main areas of the gastrointestinal tract of three mammalian species, rat, pig and man. By applying serial tissue sectioning, it was possible to study the relative occurrences of the two neuronal markers in the same cell bodies and to examine the relationships of the neurons with the glial cells as revealed by the antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100. Both neurofilaments and neuron specific enolase were localised to an extensive system of enteric nerves, with the level of neuron specific enolase-immunoreactivity showing greater variability than that observed using antibodies to neurofilaments. Comparison of the occurrence of neuron specific enolase and neurofilament immunoreactivity in serially sectioned neuronal cell bodies revealed that a minor population stained only with antibodies to neurofilaments. The equivocal or absent neuron specific enolase-immunoreactivity in some perikarya may reflect variations in functional status within the nervous system. Glial fibrillary acidic protein- and S-100-immunoreactivities were confined to glial cells which, in this normal tissue, were always in close association with the neurons. In conclusion, neurofilament-, glial fibrillary acidic protein-and S-100-immunostaining can be used to reveal the enteric nervous system and its supportive cells in these three mammals. The combined use of all these neuronal and non-neuronal markers may be helpful in delineating the enteric nervous system and assessing its morphological and functional status.
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