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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; tumor ; BLOOD ; Germany ; SUPPORT ; SYSTEM ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; HISTORY ; incidence ; POPULATION ; SAMPLE ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; SKIN ; ASSOCIATION ; DISORDER ; cytokines ; ASSAY ; PLASMA ; AGE ; smoking ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; FRANCE ; PRESSURE ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; nutrition ; TNF-ALPHA ; FACTOR-ALPHA ; CYTOKINE ; MEDICAL HISTORY ; HEART-FAILURE ; TNF RECEPTOR ; LEVEL ; ASSAYS ; depression ; BMI ; EPISODE ; BONE-MINERAL DENSITY ; PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS ; MAJOR DEPRESSION ; HPA axis ; BORDERLINE PERSONALITY-DISORDER ; PSYCHIATRIC-PATIENTS ; PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT
    Abstract: Depression has frequently been reported to be associated with other physical diseases and changes in the cytokine system. We aimed to investigate associations between a medical history of depression, its comorbidities and cytokine plasma levels in the Bavarian Nutrition Survey II (BVS II) study sample and in patients suffering from in acute depressive episode. The BVS II is a representative study of the Bavarian population aged 13-80 years. The disease history of its 1050 participants was assessed through face-to-face interviews. A sub-sample of 568 subjects and 62 additional acutely depressed inpatients of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry participated in anthropometric measurements and blood sampling. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R) p55 and sTNF-R p75 plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A history of depression was associated with a higher incidence of high blood pressure, peptic ulcer, dyslipoproteinemia, osteoporosis, allergic skin rash. atopic eczema and thyroid disease. Within the BVS II sample, participants with a history of depression differed from subjects who had never had depression with regard to sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 levels even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking status. Acutely depressed inpatients showed even higher levels of sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 than Subjects in the normal population. TNF-alpha levels were also significantly elevated in acutely depressed patients. These results confirm earlier studies regarding the comorbidities of depression and support the hypothesis that activation of the TNF-alpha system may contribute to the development of a depressive disorder. (C) 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18504118
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Keywords: Key words: Lipopolysaccharide — Hormones — Cytokines — Cortisol — Neuro-immune-endocrine network
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Objective and Design: Dose-dependence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) effects on peak and time course parameters of the immune-endocrine host response was examined in a placebo-controlled design.¶Subjects: Data from 42 male volunteers were included.¶Treatment: 0.4 or 0.8 ng LPS/kg body weight were applied at 7.00 p.m.¶Methods: Body temperature, heart rate and leukocyte counts were quantified. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and human growth hormone (hGH) were measured.¶Results: LPS increased significantly the levels of immune (TNF-α, IL-6) and endocrine (ACTH, cortisol) parameters. HGH secretion was advanced without changes in the total amount of hGH released. Dose-dependence of endotoxin's effects was significant for neuroendocrine (cortisol) and physiological (temperature, heart rate) parameters. Examination of time course parameters demonstrated that the higher dose of endotoxin prolonged the increases in temperature, IL-6 and cortisol levels.¶Conclusions: Our data show that increases in the dosage of LPS lead to differential peak responses and changed time course patterns of the human host response.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Sleep EEG ; Cortisol ; Growth hormone ; Flumazenil ; Midazolam
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The physiological function of benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors includes regulation of sleep and neuroendocrine activity. Most of the pharmacological effects of BDZ are blocked by flumazenil. However, recent neurological and behavioral studies suggest that flumazenil has its own central intrinsic activity. This issue was addressed in a study of the sleep EEG and the nocturnal secretion of growth hormone and cortisol in ten normal male controls, who were given flumazenil either alone or in combination with the BDZ agonist midazolam, placebo and midazolam alone. Flumazenil prompted an increase in sleep onset latency, a decrease in slow wave sleep and an increase in wakefulness. Plasma cortisol concentrations after flumazenil administration were lower than after midazolam. Both flumazenil and midazolam decreased nocturnal growth hormone secretion. After simultaneous application of both BDZ receptor ligands the growth hormone blunting was amplified. Our study demonstrates that at the level of the sleep EEG and neuroendocrine activity flumazenil is capable of exerting both agonistic and inverse agonistic or antagonistic effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Clozapine ; Fluvoxamine ; Metabolism ; Cytokines ; White blood cell counts ; Side effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Rationale: Clozapine treatment is associated with side-effects such as blood cell dyscrasias and weight gain. Increased plasma levels of the cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), soluble TNF receptors p55 and p75, as well as toxic metabolites of clozapine, have been suggested as the basis for these side-effects. Objectives: This study examined whether the coadministration of the selective serotonine reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine, which interferes with clozapine’s hepatic metabolism, affects the immunomodulation by clozapine and some of its side-effects. Methods: The following parameters were measured: circulating levels of the cytokines and soluble receptors, plasma concentrations of clozapine and its metabolite N-desmethylclozapine, body weight and blood cell counts in 11 and 12 schizophrenic inpatients on combined and monotherapy, respectively, before and during the first 6 weeks of medication. Results: On the basis of comparable plasma levels of clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine, the coadministration of fluvoxamine 1) attenuated and delayed the clozapine-induced increase in TNF-α plasma levels, 2) enhanced and accelerated the clozapine-induced increase in leptin plasma levels without significant effect on clozapine-induced weight gain, and 3) decreased granulocyte counts. Conclusions: As clozapine, its metabolite N-desmethylclozapine and fluvoxamine are unlikely to make these differences, other metabolites might be responsible. The coadministration of clozapine and fluvoxamine offers the opportunity to investigate further the putative associations between certain metabolites, immunomodulation and these side-effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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