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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Mainz//2011; 56. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie (gmds), 6. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Epidemiologie (DGEpi); 20110926-20110929; Mainz; DOC11gmds306 /20110920/
    Publication Date: 2011-09-20
    Keywords: SNPs ; polymorphisms ; colorectal cancer ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; DIAGNOSIS ; RISK ; FAMILY ; prevention ; ASPIRIN USE ; FATAL COLON-CANCER ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; COX-2 ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 EXPRESSION ; LARGE-BOWEL CANCER
    Abstract: Objective Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use decreases both the incidence of colorectal cancer and recurrence of adenomas among patients with prior colorectal neoplasia. However, few studies have investigated the association between NSAID use and colorectal cancer-specific survival. The role of prediagnostic NSAID use was therefore examined in relation to colorectal cancer-specific survival among cases from the Seattle Colon Cancer Family Registry (Seattle Colon CFR). Methods This was a follow-up study that included incident cases of colorectal cancer from the Seattle Colon CFR. Cases were aged 20-74, diagnosed from 1997 to 2002, and were identified using the population-based Puget Sound SEER registry. Detailed information on history of NSAID use, including type, recency and duration, was collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Follow-up for mortality was completed through linkages to the National Death Index. The main outcome measure was death due to colorectal cancer after diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the relationship between prediagnostic NSAID use and colorectal cancer-specific mortality among cases. Results NSAID use prior to colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with an -20% lower rate of colorectal cancer mortality after diagnosis compared with never use (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.97). This relationship appeared to be duration dependent, with longer reported use prior to diagnosis associated with lower rates of colorectal cancer mortality among cases. The most pronounced reductions in mortality were observed among cases diagnosed with proximal disease (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.82), whereas no association was observed between NSAID use prior to diagnosis and colorectal cancer-specific mortality among cases diagnosed with distal or rectal disease. Conclusions The findings suggest that regular use of NSAIDs prior to diagnosis is associated with improved colorectal cancer survival, particularly among cases diagnosed with proximal disease and in longer term NSAID users.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21051449
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; RISK ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; UP-REGULATION ; COLON-CANCER ; PROGRAMMED CELL-DEATH ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; tumor microenvironment ; PROSTAGLANDIN E-2 ; FALSE DISCOVERY RATE
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with systemic inflammation, and anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce both CRC incidence and mortality. Genetic variation in proinflammatory pathways can affect an individual's CRC risk. However, few studies have investigated the prognostic importance of this genetic variation in CRC patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated the association between CRC survival and genetic variation in proinflammatory pathways among patients from the Puget Sound Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in five genes (PTGS-1, PTGS-2, MRP4, NFkappaB, and IkappaBKbeta). Vital status was ascertained through linkage to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The false discovery rate method of Benjamini and Hochberg was applied to address multiple testing. RESULTS: Four PTGS-1 variants were associated with CRC survival. One, G〉A intron 9 (rs1213266), was associated with approximately 50% lower CRC mortality (HR(AA/AG vs. GG) = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.93). Three variants, including L237M, resulted in significantly elevated CRC mortality risk, with HRs ranging from approximately 1.5 to 2.0. Two variants in IkappaBKbeta, including R526Q, were significantly associated with CRC survival. Correction for multiple testing indicated that variants in both PTGS-1 and IkappaBKbeta are reproducibly associated with CRC survival. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that genetic variation in proinflammatory pathways may be important for CRC prognosis. This investigation represents one of the first descriptions of the relationship between inherited polymorphisms and mortality in CRC patients and provides a starting point for further research. Clin Cancer Res; 17(22); 7139-47. (c)2011 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21976545
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  • 4
    Keywords: COLORECTAL-CANCER ; microsatellite instability ; SYSTEMIC-LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; EPIGENETIC CHANGES ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; LINE-1 HYPOMETHYLATION ; MODERATE FOLATE-DEPLETION ; NORMAL-TISSUES
    Abstract: DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification essential for the regulation of gene expression that has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer. Few studies have investigated the wide range of potential predictors of global DNA methylation, including biomarkers. Here, we investigated associations between DNA methylation and dietary factors, sex-steroid hormones, metabolic, lipid, inflammation, immune and one-carbon biomarkers. Data and baseline biomarker measurements were obtained from 173 overweight/obese postmenopausal women. Global DNA methylation in lymphocyte DNA was measured using the pyrosequencing assay for LINE-1 repeats. We used correlations and linear regression analyses to investigate associations between continuous data and DNA methylation, while t-tests were used for categorical data. Secondary analyses stratified by serum folate levels and multivitamin use were also conducted. There was little variability in LINE-1 methylation (66.3-79.5%). Mean LINE-1 methylation was significantly higher among women with elevated glucose levels. Mean LINE-1 methylation was also higher among women with high CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and lower among women with elevated vitamin B6, but neither reached statistical significance. In analyses stratified by folate status, DNA methylation was negatively associated with sex hormone concentrations (estrone, estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin) among women with low serum folate levels (n = 53). Conversely, among women with high serum folate levels (n = 53), DNA methylation was positively associated with several immune markers (CD4/CD8 ratio, NK1656/lymphocytes and IgA). Results from this screening suggest that global DNA methylation is generally stable, with differential associations for sex hormones and immune markers depending on one-carbon status.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22869041
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  • 5
    Abstract: Pancreatic phospholipase A2, product of PLA2G1B, catalyzes the release of fatty acids from dietary phospholipids.Diet is the ultimate source of arachidonic acid in cellular phospholipids, precursor of eicosanoid signaling molecules, linked to inflammation, cell proliferation and colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated the association of PLA2G1B tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms with colorectal neoplasia risk. A linkage-disequilibrium-based tagSNP algorithm (r(2)=0.90, MAF〉/=4%) identified three tagSNPs. The SNPs were genotyped on the Illumina platform in three population-based, case-control studies: colon cancer (1424 cases/1780 controls); rectal cancer (583/775); colorectal adenomas (485/578). Evaluating gene-wide associations, principal-component and haplotype analysis were conducted, individual SNPs were evaluated by logistic regression. Two PLA2G1B variants were statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of rectal cancer (rs5637, 3702 G〉A Ser98Ser, p-trend=0.03; rs9657930, 1593 C〉T, p-trend=0.01); principal component analysis showed that genetic variation in the gene overall was statistically significantly associated with rectal cancer (p=0.02). NSAID users with the rs2070873 variant had a reduced rectal cancer risk (P-inter=0.02). Specific associations were observed with tumor subtypes (TP53/KRAS). The results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in PLA2G1B affect susceptibility to rectal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24046806
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  • 6
    Keywords: PROSTATE-CANCER ; HUMAN LIVER-MICROSOMES ; NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS ; FALSE DISCOVERY RATE ; UDP-GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIALS ; 1A6 PHARMACOGENETICS ; ALLELIC VARIANT ; DAILY ASPIRIN ; 2B15 GENE
    Abstract: The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia. Previous studies have reported that polymorphisms in NSAID-metabolizing enzymes central to NSAID metabolism including UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 may modify this protective effect. We investigated whether 35 functionally relevant polymorphisms within CYP2C9 and UGT genes were associated with colorectal cancer risk or modified the protective effect of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer susceptibility, using 1,584 colorectal cancer cases and 2,516 unaffected sibling controls from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. A three-SNP genotype in UGT1A6 (G-A-A; Ala7-Thr181-Arg184) and the Asp85 variant in UGT2B15 increased the risk of colorectal cancer (OR 3.87; 95% CI 1.04-14.45 and OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63, respectively). We observed interactions between UGT1A3 Thr78Thr (A〉G) and NSAID use (P-interaction = 0.02), a three-SNP genotype within UGT2B4 and ibuprofen use (P-interaction = 0.0018), as well as UGT2B15 Tyr85Asp (T〉G) and aspirin use (P-interaction = 0.01). The interaction with the UGT2B4 and the UGT2B15 polymorphisms were noteworthy at the 25% FDR level. This study highlights the need for further pharmacogenetic studies to identify individuals who might benefit from NSAID use as part of developing effective strategies for prevention of colorectal neoplasia. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24677636
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  • 7
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; polymorphism ; BREAST-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; UDP-GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASES ; IRON TRANSPORT ; FAMILY SLC25 ; HEPHAESTIN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk. METHODS: In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q〈0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p〈0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4). CONCLUSION: These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations between inherited cellular transport gene variants and risk of EOC histologic subtypes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26091520
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  • 8
    Keywords: carcinoma ; MODELS ; POPULATION ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; PROFILES ; SET ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified by co-expression may also be enriched for additional EOC risk associations. METHODS: We selected TF genes within 1 Mb of the top signal at the 12 genome-wide significant risk loci. Mutual information, a form of correlation, was used to build networks of genes strongly co-expressed with each selected TF gene in the unified microarray data set of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this data set were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls). RESULTS: Gene set enrichment analysis identified six networks centered on TF genes (HOXB2, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7 at 17q21.32 and HOXD1, HOXD3 at 2q31) that were significantly enriched for genes from the risk-associated end of the ranked list (P〈0.05 and FDR〈0.05). These results were replicated (P〈0.05) using an independent association study (7,035 cases/21,693 controls). Genes underlying enrichment in the six networks were pooled into a combined network. CONCLUSION: We identified a HOX-centric network associated with serous EOC risk containing several genes with known or emerging roles in serous EOC development. IMPACT: Network analysis integrating large, context-specific data sets has the potential to offer mechanistic insights into cancer susceptibility and prioritize genes for experimental characterization.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26209509
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  • 9
    Keywords: PATHWAY ; DIFFERENTIATION ; QUERCETIN ; MUTATIONS ; adenocarcinoma ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; WNT ; BETA-CATENIN EXPRESSION ; TUMOR STEM-CELLS ; DYSREGULATION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Investigations of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) genes and gene-nutrient interactions with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are limited to candidate polymorphisms and dietary folate. This study comprehensively investigated associations between genetic variants in FOCM and CRC risk and whether the FOCM nutrient status modified these associations. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-eight candidate and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 FOCM genes were genotyped for 821 incident CRC case-control matched pairs in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort. FOCM biomarkers (red blood cell [RBC] folate, plasma folate, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate [PLP], vitamin B12, and homocysteine) and self-reported alcohol consumption were measured at the baseline. Conditional logistic regression was implemented; effect modification was examined on the basis of known enzyme-nutrient relations. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were observed between CRC risk and functionally defined candidate SNPs of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1; K134R), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR; P450R), and PR domain containing 2 with ZNF domain (PRDM2; S450N) and a literature candidate SNP of thymidylate synthase (TYMS; g.676789A〉T; nominal P 〈 .05). In addition, suggestive associations were noted for tagging SNPs in cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3beta (DNMT3B), methionine adenosyltransferase I alpha (MAT1A), MTHFD1, and MTRR (nominal P 〈 .05; adjusted P, not significant). Significant interactions between nutrient biomarkers and candidate polymorphisms were observed for 1) plasma/RBC folate and folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), transcobalamin II (TCN2), DNMT1, and DNMT3B; 2) plasma PLP and TYMS TS3; 3) plasma B12 and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2); and 4) homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and alanyl-transfer RNA synthetase (AARS). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants in FOCM genes are associated with CRC risk among postmenopausal women. FOCM nutrients continue to emerge as effect modifiers of genetic influences on CRC risk. Cancer 2015;121:3684-3691. (c) 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26108676
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  • 10
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: In vitro and observational epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D may play a role in cancer prevention. However, the relationship between vitamin D and ovarian cancer is uncertain, with observational studies generating conflicting findings. A potential limitation of observational studies is inadequate control of confounding. To overcome this problem, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We employed SNPs with well-established associations with 25(OH)D concentration as instrumental variables for MR: rs7944926 (DHCR7), rs12794714 (CYP2R1) and rs2282679 (GC). We included 31 719 women of European ancestry (10 065 cases, 21 654 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, who were genotyped using customized Illumina Infinium iSelect (iCOGS) arrays. A two-sample (summary data) MR approach was used and analyses were performed separately for all ovarian cancer (10 065 cases) and for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (4121 cases). RESULTS: The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer risk (10 065 cases) estimated by combining the individual SNP associations using inverse variance weighting was 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.51) per 20 nmol/L decrease in 25(OH)D concentration. The estimated odds ratio for high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (4121 cases) was 1.54 (1.19, 2.01). CONCLUSIONS: Genetically lowered 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were associated with higher ovarian cancer susceptibility in Europeans. These findings suggest that increasing plasma vitamin D levels may reduce risk of ovarian cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27594614
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