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  • 1
    ISSN: 0167-7799
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Barley ; Genome mapping ; Stripe rust ; Leaf rust ; BYDV ; Resistance Gene Analog Polymorphism ; QTL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Stripe rust, leaf rust, and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) are important diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare L). Using 94 doubled-haploid lines (DH) from the cross of Shyri x Galena, multiple disease phenotype datasets, and a 99-marker linkage map, we determined the number, genome location, and effects of genes conferring resistance to these diseases. We also mapped Resistance Gene Analog Polymorphism (RGAP) loci, based on degenerate motifs of cloned disease resistance genes, in the same population. Leaf rust resistance was determined by a single gene on chromosome 1 (7H). QTLs on chromosomes 2 (2H), 3 (3H), 5 (1H), and 6 (6H) were the principal determinants of resistance to stripe rust. Two- locus QTL interactions were significant determinants of resistance to this disease. Resistance to the MAV and PAV serotypes of BYDV was determined by coincident QTLs on chromosomes 1 (7H), 4 (4H), and 5 (1H). QTL interactions were not significant for BYDV resistance. The associations of molecular markers with qualitative and quantitative disease resistance loci will be a useful information for marker-assisted selection.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; Hordeum vulgare ; Irradiated pollen ; Plant breeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Second generation progenies (M2) derived from crosses using barley pollen irradiated at 500, 1,000 1,500 and 2,000 rads increasingly resembled the maternal parent. ‘Golden Promise’, but contained some characteristics derived from the paternal parent, ‘Magnum’.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Hordeum vulgare ; Barley ; Tissue culture ; Haploid ; Somaclonal variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Plant tissue culture technology is of increasing interest to plant breeders. As part of a continuing investigation into breeding methods with spring barley two studies were conducted to assess the field performance of the progenies of material regenerated in tissue culture. The first study involved two spring barley cultivars, ‘Golden Promise’ and ‘Mazurka’ and compared lines produced from immature embryo (IE) derived callus with those from embryos developed by the Hordeum bulbosum (Hb) technique of chromosome elimination. In general the mean values for the seven characters scored were lower for the IE than the Hb material. In the second study F1 hybrid material (‘Golden Promise’x‘Mazurka’) was used and doubled haploid lines produced by the H. bulbosum and microspore culture (M) techniques were compared with single seed descent (SSD) material. Analysis of these F∝ samples indicated that the mean values for the M lines were significantly lower than those of the Hb and SSD lines. Furthermore, data from the M lines showed significant evidence of variation created during the culture phase. The implications of these findings for barley breeding are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; Doubled haploids ; Somaclonal variation ; Breeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary From an F1 hybrid between the two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars ‘Golden Promise’ and ‘Mazurka’ a series of doubled haploid (DH) lines were generated both from microspores by anther culture and from immature zygotic embryos after hybridization withH. bulbosum. The DH lines from both sources were used to monitor the segregation of the five major genes, rachilla hair length, DDT susceptibility, height, C hordein polymorphism and mildew resistance. Whereas the microspore-derived samples showed significant departures from the expected 1∶1 ratio for three of the five genes, theH. bulbosum lines showed deviation for only one gene. Analysis of linkage data also showed differences between the two series of DH lines. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a mean chiasma frequency in theH. bulbosum lines which was very similar to the F1 hybrid. In contrast, four of the ten microspore derived lines examined showed a reduced chiasma frequency. One showed evidence of translocation heterozygosity.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Water-soluble protein (WSP) ; Barley ; β Amylase ; Linkage ; Spring/winter habit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Water-soluble proteins (WSP-2 and WSP-3) and β-amylase (β-AMY-1) were extracted from mature endosperms of 44 spring and 39 winter barley genotypes. The protein and enzyme isoforms were separated in isoelectric focusing gels with a pH gradient of 4–6.5. The Wsp-3 and β-Amy-1 loci were located to chromosomes 4H using the wheat/barley chromosome addition lines. Segregation analysis of F2 and doubled haploid populations showed Wsp-2 and β-Amy-1 to be tightly linked, with a map distance of 11 cMorgans. Isoforms of WSP-2 possessed similar pIs to that of WSP-3 and overlapping bands were observed in the gels. These bands segregated independently in F2 and doubled haploid populations, implying two unlinked genes. All three loci were found to be polymorphic: two alleles were detected at the Wsp-2 locus, three at Wsp-3 and two at β-Amy-1. The frequency of alleles at all three loci was found to be different in winter and spring genotypes. Spring genotypes possessed a wider range of phenotypes than winter genotypes. Spring and winter genotypes could be distinguished on the basis of WSP-3 and β- AMY-1 phenotypes. The linkage between Wsp-3 and β-Amy-1 loci and genes controlling spring/winter habit on chromosome 4H is discussed. It is concluded that Wsp-3 and β-Amy-1 can be used as genetic markers for spring/winter habit in barley genetic research and breeding.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Potato ; Dihaploid ; Parthenogenesis ; Fertilization ; Chromosome elimination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Seventeen potato dihaploids, produced by pollinating the tetraploid (2n = 48) cv ‘Pentland Crown’ with pollen from Solanum phureja (2n = 24) dihaploid inducer clones, were studied. Since dihaploids are thought to develop parthenogenetically from unfertilized ovules they were expected to be euploid (2n = 24), but somatic chromosome counts showed that 15 of the 17 dihaploids were aneusomatic. Ten of the clones were predominantly diploid (2n = 24) with a proportion of hyperploid cells that contained 25 or 26 chromosomes. Five of the dihaploids contained variable numbers of triploid cells (2n = 36). RFLP analysis was used to determine whether the additional chromosomes were from S. phureja or S. tuberosum. Unique hybridizing fragments present in S. phureja but not in ‘Pentland Crown’ were identified. These S. phureja-specific restriction fragments were present in some of the dihaploid offspring of ‘Pentland Crown’. Of the 5 clones that contained triploid cells 4 had S. phureja type banding. Four of the 10 aneusomatic clones that contained hyperploid cells had the unique S. phureja hybridizing fragments. We propose that ovules of ‘Pentland Crown’ were fertilized by pollen from S. phureja and that the aneusomatic clones were derived from triploid zygotes from which some of the S. phureja chromosomes were eliminated. We consider that this is an additional mechanism of dihaploid formation in potato.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cocoa ; RAPDs ; DNA ; Polymorphism ; Genetic diversity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been used to characterise cocoa clones representing the three main cultivated subpopulations: Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario. The use of single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence resulted in the selective amplification of DNA fragments which were unique to the individual cocoa clones studied. The use of a single primer allowed each of the clones evaluated to be unequivocally characterised. The application of RAPD markers for the evaluation of germplasm and cocoa improvement programmes are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Hordeum vulgare ; Competition ; Plant breeding ; Monocultures ; Mixtures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The presence of significant levels of intergenotypic competition amongst barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes has profound consequences for barley breeding programmes. Breeding programmes based on the pedigree system attempt to identify genotypes in genetically heterogeneous populations but the elite genotypes are grown in monoculture. Thus, to attain varietal status genotypes produced by this breeding strategy must perform well in mixtures as well as in pure stands. The effectiveness of early generation selection may be hampered by intergenotypic competition. To examine this problem in spring barley, a modified substitution experiment (Mather and Caligari 1981, 1983) was used and included genotypes sampled from a random set of inbred lines generated without conscious selection. This approach to the investigation of competitive effects in barley indicated the presence of significant levels of intergenotypic competition for a range of agronomic characters. The analyses allowed a distinction to be made between aggression (a) and response (r) with the component r displaying greater variation than a. The lack of correlation in the distribution of a and r suggested that they were under separate genetic control and hence adjustable by selection. The implications of these results for barley improvement, the use of varietal mixtures and mixed cropping are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Hordeum vulgare ; β-glucan ; Doubled haploids ; Genetics ; Correlated characters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Random inbred lines produced by doubled haploidy (DH) and single seed descent (SSD) have been used to investigate the genetics of β-glucan (gum) content in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Genetical analyses indicated that gum content is controlled by a simple additive genetic system. Significant negative genetic correlations were observed between β-glucan content, thousand grain weight and height in the DH samples. These correlations were much reduced in the SSD samples and would suggest linkage of the genes controlling these characters. The presence of repulsion linkages could be exploited in a barley breeding programme by producing F1 derived DH to generate recombinants with high thousand grain weight and low β-glucan content. Genetical parameters estimated from DH and F3 samples have successfully been used to predict the number of inbred lines transgressing the parental range for β-glucan content and bivariate combinations involving β-glucan.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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