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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; CELL ; MODEL ; DNA ; kidney ; MACROPHAGES ; RAT ; BIOLOGY ; ACID ; LESIONS ; PROGRESSION ; immunohistochemistry ; LYMPHOCYTES ; IMMUNITY ; pathology ; inflammation ; INJURY ; aristolochic acid ; CHINESE HERBS NEPHROPATHY ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA ; FEATURES ; TGF-BETA ; DNA ADDUCT ; PHASE ; CELL BIOLOGY ; interstitial inflammation ; RENAL FIBROSIS ; CASE SERIES ; cytotoxic T cells ; FANCONIS-SYNDROME ; INTERSTITIAL RENAL FIBROSIS ; MURINE ADRIAMYCIN NEPHROPATHY
    Abstract: Aristolochic acid nephropathy revisited: a place for innate and adaptive immunity? Aims: The histological features of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) consist of paucicellular interstitial fibrosis, severe tubular atrophy, and almost intact glomeruli with media lesions of interlobular arteries. As an early phase of interstitial inflammation preceded peritubular fibrosis in the rat model of AAN, the aim was to investigate the presence of inflammatory cells in human AAN. Methods and results: Reports of confirmed cases and case series of AAN were reviewed in terms of interstitial inflammation and found to have very conflicting results. This prompted us to search for and characterize inflammatory cells within the native kidneys provided from four end-stage AAN patients. Prior aristolochic acid exposure was attested by the intrarenal presence of the typical aristolactam I-derived DNA adduct. Besides the tubulointerstitial lesions usually seen in the cortex, a massive infiltration of macrophages, T and B lymphocytes was detected by immunohistochemistry in the medullary rays and in the outer medullae with some extension to the upper cortical labyrinth. Conclusions: In parallel with histological findings reported in the rat model, inflammatory cells are present preferentially in the interstitium of the medullary rays and of the outer medulllae in renal interstitium from human AAN cases, even in the terminal stages. Further studies must be undertaken to determine the respective roles of innate and adaptive immunity in the progression of AAN
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 2
    Keywords: DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; kidney ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; CHINESE HERBS NEPHROPATHY ; urothelial cancer
    Abstract: Aristolochic acid (AA) causes aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), first described in women in Belgium accidently prescribed Aristolochia fangchi in a slimming treatment, and also Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), through probable dietary contamination with Aristolochia clematitis seeds. Both nephropathies have a high risk of urothelial cancer, with AA being the causative agent. In tissues of AAN and BEN patients, a distinct DNA adduct, 7-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-aristolactam I (dA-AAI), has been detected. DNA adducts can be removed through DNA repair, they can result in mutations through erroneous DNA replication or they can cause cell death. The dA-AAI adduct induces AT to TA transversions in the tumor-suppressor TP53 gene in experimental systems, matching TP53 mutations observed in urothelial tumors from AAN cancer cases. Using thin-layer chromatography 32P-postlabeling and mass spectrometric analysis we report the detection of dA-AAI in renal DNA from 11 Belgian AAN patients over 20 years after exposure to AA had ceased. Our results showed that dA-AAI is an established biomarker of AA exposure, and that this biomarker can be demonstrated to be persistent decades after a distinct AA exposure. Further, the persistence of dA-AAI adducts appears to be a critical determinant for the AA mutational fingerprint frequently found in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes recently identified by whole genome sequencing of AA-associated urothelial tumors. The potential for exposure to AA worldwide is high; the unprecedented long-term persistence of dA-AAI provides a useful long-term biomarker of exposure and attests to the role of AA in human urothelial malignancy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24921086
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