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  • 1
    Keywords: PROTEINS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; BIOLOGY ; keratin ; INTERMEDIATE-FILAMENTS ; cytoskeleton ; RE ; review ; GENE DOMAIN ; FOLLICLE ; HUMAN TYPE-I ; intermediate filament ; HAIR FOLLICLE ; keratins ; ALPHA-KERATIN ; COMPANION LAYER ; EPITHELIAL KERATIN ; hair ; hair keratins ; INNERMOST CELL LAYER ; OUTER ROOT SHEATH ; RESOLUTION 2-DIMENSIONAL ELECTROPHORESIS
    Abstract: Intermediate filaments are a large family of proteins that are the cytoskeletal elements involved in a number of skin, liver, neuromuscular, cardiac, eye and hair diseases. Intermediate filament genes are regulated in a tissue-and cell type-specific manner and their polymerized protein products protects the cells and tissue they are part of against a variety of mechanical and nonmechanical stresses. This book provides a comprehensive resource of methodology essentials, describing a variety of essential tools and assays for studying intermediate filaments. The book provides user-friendly advice and protocols covering all aspects of intermediate filaments including protein isolation and structure, protein and gene regulation, relationship to disease and apoptosis, and associated proteins. Both mammalian and non-mammalian systems and animal models are covered, making this book a must-have for any investigator wishing to study IF genes or their protein products. This book covers intermediate filaments from crystallography, protein chemistry, cell and molecular biology, microrheology, gene regulation, to animal models and human disease. It is practical and user-friendly with detailed 'how-to-protocols and tricks of the trade'. It includes detailed tables of useful reagents, vendors and web links. Synopsis Intermediate filaments are a large family of proteins that are the cytoskeletal elements involved in a number of skin, liver, neuromuscular, cardiac, eye and hair diseases. Intermediate filament genes are regulated in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner and their polymerized protein products protects the cells and tissue they are part of against a variety of mechanical and nonmechanical stresses. This book provides a comprehensive resource of methodology essentials, describing a variety of essential tools and assays for studying intermediate filaments. The book provides user-friendly advice and protocols covering all aspects of intermediate filaments including protein isolation and structure, protein and gene regulation, relationship to disease and apoptosis, and associated proteins. Both mammalian and non-mammalian systems and animal models are covered, making this book a must-have for any investigator wishing to study IF genes or their protein products. This book covers intermediate filaments from crystallography, protein chemistry, cell and molecular biology, microrheology, gene regulation, to animal models and human disease. It is practical and user-friendly with detailed 'how-to-protocols' and 'tricks of the trade'. It includes detailed tables of useful reagents, vendors and web links.
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    Keywords: ADHESION MOLECULE ; FREEZE-FRACTURE ; CORNEAL EPITHELIUM ; INTERCELLULAR-JUNCTIONS ; GAP-JUNCTIONS ; SEPTATE JUNCTIONS ; PARACELLULAR PERMEABILITY ; ZONULA OCCLUDENS ; ORAL EPITHELIUM ; PROTEIN ZO-1
    Abstract: The occurrence of extended tight junction (TJ) structures, including zonulae occludentes (ZO), and the spatial arrangement of TJ proteins in stratified mammalian epithelia has long been controversially discussed. Therefore, we have systematically examined the localization of TJ proteins in diverse stratified epithelial tissues (e.g., epidermis, heel pad, snout, gingiva, tongue, esophagus, exocervix, vagina, urothelium, cornea) of various species (human, bovine, rodents) as well as in human cell culture lines derived from stratified epithelia, by electron microscopy as well as by immunocytochemistry at both the light and the electron microscopic level, using antibodies to TJ proteins such as occludin, claudins 1 and 4, protein ZO-1, cingulin and symplekin. We have found an unexpected diversity of TJ-related structures of which only those showing colocalization with the most restricted transmembrane TJ marker protein, occludin, are presented here. While in epidermis and urothelium occludin is restricted to the uppermost living cell layer, TJ-related junctions are abundant in the upper third or even in the majority of the suprabasal cell layers in other stratified epithelia. Interfollicular epidermis contains, in the stratum granulosum, extended, probably continuous ZO-like structures which can also be traced at least through the Henle cell layer of hair follicles. Similar apical ZO-like structures have been seen in the upper living cell layers of all other stratified epithelia and cell cultures examined, but in most of them we have noticed, in addition, junctional regions showing relatively broad, ribbon-like membrane contacts which in cross-section often appear pentalaminar, with an electron-dense middle lamella ("lamellated TJs", coniunctiones laminosae). In suprabasal layers of several stratified epithelia we have further observed TJ protein-containing junctions of variable sizes which are characterized by a 10-30-nm dense lamina interposed between the two membranes ("sandwich junctions"; iuncturae structae). Moreover, we have often observed variously sized regions in which the intermembrane distance is rather regularly bridged by short rod-like elements ("cross-bridged cell walls"; parietes transtillati), often in close vicinity of TJ-related structures or desmosomes. The significance of these structures and their possible biological importance are discussed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12234014
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  • 3
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; CLONING ; GENE ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; DOMAIN ; IN-SITU ; PATTERNS ; gene expression ; cytoskeleton ; intermediate filaments ; keratin ; LAYER ; CELLS FLUGELZELLEN ; CUTICLE CELLS ; CYTOKERATINS ; GENE DOMAIN ; human hair follicle ; HUXLEY ; MAMMALIAN-TISSUES
    Abstract: In this study we report on the cloning of two novel human type II keratin cDNAs, K6irs3 and K6irs4, which were specifically expressed in the inner root sheath of the hair follicle. Together with the genes of two previously described type II inner root sheath keratins, K6irs1 and K6irs2, the K6irs3 and K6irs4 genes were subclustered in the type II keratin/hair keratin gene domain on chromosome 12q13. Evolutionary tree analysis using all known type II epithelial and hair keratins revealed that the K6irs1-4 formed a branch separate from the other epithelial and hair keratins. RNA in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence studies of human hair follicles, which also included the K6irs2 keratin, demonstrated that both K6irs2 and K6irs3 were specifically expressed in the inner root sheath cuticle, but showed a different onset of expression in this compartment. Whereas the K6irs3 expression began in the lowermost bulb region, that of K6irs2 was delayed up to the height of the apex of the dermal papilla. In contrast, the K6irs4 keratin was specifically expressed in the Huxley layer. Moreover, K6irs4 was ideally suited to further investigate the occurrence of Flugelzellen, i.e., Huxley cells, characterized by horizontal cell extensions that pass through the Henle layer, abut upon the companion layer, and form desmosomal connections with the surrounding cells. Previously, we detected Flugelzellen only in the region along the differentiated Henle layer. Using the Huxley-cell-specific K6irs4 antiserum, we now demonstrate this cell type to be clearly apposed to the entire Henle layer. We provide evidence that Flugelzellen penetrate the Henle layer actively and may play a role in conferring plasticity and resilience to the otherwise rigid upper Henle layer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12648212
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; MICROSCOPY ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; EPITHELIA ; TISSUE ; TISSUES ; PRIMARY CULTURES ; immunohistochemistry ; metastases ; REGION ; REGIONS ; SURFACE ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES ; CARCINOMAS ; squamous cell carcinoma ; pathology ; epidermis ; PERMEABILITY BARRIER ; TIGHT JUNCTIONS ; LAYER ; CYTOKERATINS ; MAMMALIAN-TISSUES ; electron microscopy ; FREEZE-FRACTURE ; HASSALLS CORPUSCLES ; HUMAN EPIDERMIS ; NORMAL HUMAN THYMUS ; stratified epithelia,tight junctions,occludin,claudins,squamous cell carcinoma,thymus,Hassall's corp
    Abstract: Tight junctions (TJs), hallmark structures of one-layered epithelia and of endothelia, are of central biological importance as intramembranous "fences" and as hydrophobic "barriers" between lumina represented by liquid- or gas-filled spaces on the one hand and the mesenchymal space on the other. They have long been thought to be absent from stratified epithelia. Recently, however, constitutive TJ proteins and TJ-related structures have also been identified in squamous stratified epithelia, including the epidermis, where they occur in special positions, most prominently in the uppermost living epidermal cell layer, the stratum granulosum. Much to our surprise, however, we have now also discovered several major TJ proteins (claudins 1 and 4, occludin, cingulin, symplekin, protein ZO-1) and TJ-related structures in specific positions of formations of epithelium-derived tissues that lack any lumen and do not border on luminal or body surfaces. Using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy we have localized TJ proteins and structures in peripheral cells of the Hassall's corpuscles of human and bovine thymi as well as in specific central formations of tumor nests in squamous cell carcinomas, including the so-called "horn pearls". Such structures have even been found in carcinoma metastases. In carcinomas, they often seem to separate certain tumor regions from others or from stroma. The structural significance and the possible functional relevance of the locally restricted synthesis of TJ proteins and of the formations of TJ-related structures are discussed. It is proposed to include the determination of the presence or absence of such proteins and structures in the diagnostic program of tumor pathology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14533737
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  • 5
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; CDNA ; GENE ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; FAMILY ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; primary ; DOMAIN ; BINDING ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; SEQUENCE ; SEQUENCES ; chromosome ; MOUSE ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; IDENTIFICATION ; IN-SITU ; AMPLIFICATION ; PROMOTER ; ELEMENTS ; HEAT-SHOCK ; DATABASE ; REGION ; FIBER ; REGIONS ; keratin ; isolation ; DOMAINS ; GENE DOMAIN ; FOLLICLE ; HAIR-FOLLICLES ; CLUSTER ; HUMAN TYPE-I ; PSEUDOGENES ; CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEIN ; HOXC13 ; cDNA,gene expression,hair follicle,in situ hybridization,keratin ; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEINS ; HUMAN-CHROMOSOME 21
    Abstract: Analysis of the EBI/GeneBank database using nonhuman hair keratin associated protein (KAP) gene sequences as a query resulted in the identification of two human KAP gene domains on chromosome 21, one of which, located at 21q22.1, has recently been characterized. The second domain presented here, an approximately 90 kb domain on chromosome 21q23, harbored 16 KAP genes and two KAP pseudogenes. By comparison with known sheep and mouse KAP families, these genes could be assigned to two KAP families, KAP10 and KAP12, with the KAP10 family (12 members) being distinctly larger than the KAP12 family (four members). Systematic cDNA/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends isolation studies using human scalp mRNA led to the identification of eight KAP10 and two KAP12 cDNA sequences. In situ hybridization analyses of human anagen hair follicles using specific 3'-noncoding sequences of the various KAP10/KAP12 genes revealed mRNA expression of nearly all KAP10 and KAP12 members exclusively in a narrow region of the middle portion of the hair fiber cuticle. Bioinformatic analyses of the promoter regions of the KAP10/KAP12 genes demonstrated several enhancer elements that were present in nearly all of the KAP genes. Primary among these were binding elements for the ETS, heat shock factor, AML, and HOX families of transcription factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14962103
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  • 6
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; PROSTATE ; TOOL ; GENE ; DIFFERENTIATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MOTIFS ; FAMILY ; MARKER ; BINDING ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; SEQUENCE ; TYPE-1 ; TARGET ; ELEMENT ; ASSAY ; VECTOR ; MOBILITY ; PROMOTER ; ELEMENTS ; keratin ; RESPONSIVE ELEMENT ; FOLLICLE ; HAIR-FOLLICLES ; HUMAN SKIN ; CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION ; HUMAN TYPE-I ; ABSENCE ; MOTIF ; keratins ; HAIR FOLLICLE ; HOMOLOGY ; adrogens ; ANTIGEN GENE ; DERMAL PAPILLA CELLS ; IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION
    Abstract: Previous work had shown that most members of the complex human hair keratin family were expressed in terminal scalp hairs. An exception to this rule was the type I hair keratin hHa7, which was only detected in some but not all vellus hairs of the human scalp (Langbein et al, 1999). Here we show that hHa7 exhibits constitutive expression in medullary cells of all types of male and female sexual hairs. Medullated beard, axillary, and pubic hairs arise during puberty from small, unmedullated vellus hairs under the influence of circulating androgens. This suggested an androgen-controlled expression of the hHa7 gene. Further evidence for this assumption was provided by the demonstration of androgen receptor (AR) expression in the nuclei of medullary cells of beard hairs. Moreover, homology search for the semipalindromic androgen receptor-binding element (ARE) consensus sequence GG(A)/(T)ACAnnnTGTTCT in the proximal hHa7 promoter revealed three putative ARE motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the specific binding of AR to all three hHa7 AREs. Their function as AR-responsive elements, either individually or in concert within the hHa7 promoter, could be further confirmed by transfection studies with or without an AR expression vector in PtK2 and prostate PC3-Arwt cells, respectively in the presence or absence of a synthetic androgen. Our study detected hHa7 as the first gene in hair follicle trichocytes whose expression appears to be directly regulated by androgens. As such, hHa7 represents a marker for androgen action on hair follicles and might be a suitable tool for investigations of androgen-dependent hair disorders
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 7
    Abstract: Tightening of endothelial cell-to-cell contacts is an important event at the end of angiogenesis in order to achieve controlled transfer of solutes between the blood stream and solid tissues. We found that tightening of endothelial cell-to-cell contacts and the formation of a permeability barrier can be induced in vitro by dibutyryl cAMP and hydrocortisone. This process is accompanied by increased junctional localization and cytoskeletal association of the adherens junctional plakoglobin and the tight junction associated proteins ZO-1, ZO-2, and occludin. Based on these findings, we proceeded to investigate whether smooth-muscle-like mesenchymal cells would influence endothelial junctional differentiation. For this purpose, human umbilical chord vein endothelial cells and murine smooth-muscle-like 10T1/2 cells were cocultivated and compared with their respective monocultures. Immunofluorescence on cells and Western blot analyses were performed for marker proteins of adherens and tight junctions. Functional permeability assays were performed for the tracer molecule biotin-dextran. The results indicated that 10T1/2 cells induced the tightening of endothelial cell-to-cell contacts. Plakoglobin, ZO-1, ZO-2, and occludin showed increased junctional localization when 10T1/2 cells were present. Cocultures also displayed a significantly higher permeability barrier for the tracer molecule biotin-dextran. In conclusion, mural cells such as smooth muscle cells and pericytes may be important for stabilizing endothelial cell-to-cell contacts and may influence vessel-type specific differences of the endothelial phenotype.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12164937
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  • 8
    Keywords: CDNA CLONES ; MESSENGER-RNA ; FAMILY ; DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION ; ORGANIZATION ; FOLLICLE ; HUMAN TYPE-I ; HUMAN HAIR KERATINS ; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEINS ; SHEEP WOOL
    Abstract: Analysis of the EBI/GeneBank(TM) data base using non-human hair keratin-associated protein (KAP) cDNA sequences as a query resulted in the identification of a first domain of high glycine-tyrosine and high sulfur KAP genes located on human chromosome 21q22.1. This domain, present on the DNA accession numbers and, was approximately 535 kb in size and contained 17 high glycine-tyrosine and 7 high sulfur KAP genes, as well as 9 KAP pseudogenes. Based on amino acid sequence comparisons of the encoded proteins, the KAP genes could be divided into seven high glycine-tyrosine gene families (KAP6-KAP8, and KAP19-KAP22) and four high sulfur gene families (KAP11, KAP13, KAP15, and KAP23). The high glycine-tyrosine genes described here appear to represent the complete set of this type of KAP genes present in the human genome. Both systematic cDNA isolation studies from an arrayed scalp cDNA library and in situ hybridization expression studies of all of the KAP genes identified in the 21q22.1 region revealed varying degrees and regions of expression of 11 members of the high tyrosine-glycine genes and 6 members of the high sulfur KAP genes in the hair forming compartment.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12359730
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  • 9
    Keywords: GLAND ; GENE FAMILY ; human ; FAMILY ; GENE ; MEMBER ; keratin ; FAMILIES
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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  • 10
    Keywords: claudin ; epithelial barrier ; OLIGOMERIZATION ; TIGHT JUNCTIONS ; JUNCTIONS ; FORM ; BIOLOGY ; IN-VIVO ; VIVO ; CELL ; COMPLEXES ; COMPLEX
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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